Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid‐latitudes

@article{Francis2012EvidenceLA,
  title={Evidence linking Arctic amplification to extreme weather in mid‐latitudes},
  author={Jennifer A. Francis and Stephen J. Vavrus},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
  year={2012},
  volume={39}
}
Arctic amplification (AA) – the observed enhanced warming in high northern latitudes relative to the northern hemisphere – is evident in lower‐tropospheric temperatures and in 1000‐to‐500 hPa thicknesses. Daily fields of 500 hPa heights from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis are analyzed over N. America and the N. Atlantic to assess changes in north‐south (Rossby) wave characteristics associated with AA and the relaxation of poleward thickness gradients. Two effects… 
Future Changes in Northern Hemisphere Summer Weather Persistence Linked to Projected Arctic Warming
Understanding the response of the large‐scale atmospheric circulation to climatic change remains a key challenge. Specifically, changes in the equator‐to‐pole temperature difference have been
Evidence linking rapid Arctic warming to mid-latitude weather patterns
  • J. Francis, N. Skific
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2015
TLDR
New metrics and evidence are presented that suggest disproportionate Arctic warming—and resulting weakening of the poleward temperature gradient—is causing the Northern Hemisphere circulation to assume a more meridional character (i.e. wavier), although not uniformly in space or by season, and that highly amplified jet-stream patterns are occurring more frequently.
Changes in North American Atmospheric Circulation and Extreme Weather: Influence of Arctic Amplification and Northern Hemisphere Snow Cover
AbstractThis study tests the hypothesis that Arctic amplification (AA) of global warming remotely affects midlatitudes by promoting a weaker, wavier atmospheric circulation conducive to extreme
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Arctic amplification (AA) reduces meridional temperature gradients (dT/dy) over the northern mid-high latitudes, which may weaken westerly winds. It is suggested that this may lead to wavier and more
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Previous studies have suggested that Arctic amplification has caused planetary‐scale waves to elongate meridionally and slow down, resulting in more frequent blocking patterns and extreme weather.
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The Arctic region has warmed more than twice as fast as the global average — a phenomenon known as Arctic amplification. The rapid Arctic warming has contributed to dramatic melting of Arctic sea ice
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