Evidence for two independent domestications of cattle.

  title={Evidence for two independent domestications of cattle.},
  author={Ronan T. Loftus and David E. MacHugh and Daniel G. Bradley and Paul M. Sharp and Patrick Cunningham},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={91 7},
  • R. Loftus, D. MacHugh, +2 authors P. Cunningham
  • Published 29 March 1994
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
The origin and taxonomic status of domesticated cattle are controversial. Zebu and taurine breeds are differentiated primarily by the presence or absence of a hump and have been recognized as separate species (Bos indicus and Bos taurus). However, the most widely held view is that both types of cattle derive from a single domestication event 8000-10,000 years ago. We have examined mtDNA sequences from representatives of six European (taurine) breeds, three Indian (zebu) breeds, and four African… 
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Complete mitochondrial genomes of Bos taurus and Bos indicus provide new insights into intra-species variation, taxonomy and domestication
Combined phylogenetic analyses of 18 new and 130 previously reported extant B. taurus and B. indicus mitochondrial genome sequences and archaeological specimens of the extinct wild aurochs identified four major maternal lineages, suggesting domestications from several differentiated populations of B. primigenius and a subspecies status for taurine and zebuine cattle.
Historical demographic profiles and genetic variation of the East African Butana and Kenana indigenous dairy zebu cattle.
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Zebu cattle are an exclusive legacy of the South Asia neolithic.
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The origin of European cattle: evidence from modern and ancient DNA.
Previously undescribed genetic evidence is presented in contrast with this view based on mtDNA sequences from five Italian aurochsen dated between 7,000 and 17,000 years B.P. and >1,000 modern cattle from 51 breeds to suggest the European cattle may represent a more variable and valuable genetic resource than previously realized.
Genetics and domestic cattle origins
Patterns of genetic variants assayed from paternally, maternALLY, and biparentally inherited genetic systems reveal that extensive hybridization of the two subspecies is part of the ancestry of Northern Indian, peripheral European, and almost all African cattle breeds.
Genetic evidence for Near-Eastern origins of European cattle
The limited ranges of the wild progenitors of many of the primary European domestic species point to their origins further east in Anatolia or the fertile crescent. The wild ox (Bos primigenius),
Mitochondrial DNA variation and evolution of Japanese black cattle (Bos taurus).
Complete mitochondrial DNA displacement loop sequences from 32 Japanese Black cattle are described and the analysis of these data in conjunction with previously published sequences from African, European, and Indian subjects suggest an interchange of variants that may be ancient, perhaps a legacy of the first introduction of domesticates to East Asia.
The Origins of Domesticated Cattle
Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data shows that African and European taurine cattle were probably domesticated independently, but that there was a process of genetic introgression between t aurine and zebu cattle in Africa.
Matrilineal genetic inter-introgression of Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China
The geographical distribution of frequencies revealed an inter-introgression pattern of Bos taurus and Bos indicus in maternal lineages in China, which resulted from the dominant geographical segregation of the Qinling Moutains and temperature weather conditions.


The Walking Larder: Patterns of Domestication, Pastoralism, and Predation
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The Origin of the Domestic Animals
Rimers and drills of the usual forms are found, though not in great numbers. Most of the perforations found in various specimens, as banner stones and tubes, were not made by means of flint drills,
Selected issues in livestock industry development.
This book deals with livestock studies in a global context: the maintenance of biological diversity, the international implications of the dominance of meat production in agriculture in the European
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PAUP, Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL)
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