1. tRNA isolated from non-lactating bovine mammary gland competitively inhibits the formation of aminoacyl-tRNA in the rat liver system. 2. Non-lactating bovine mammary gland tRNA and twice-pyrophosphorolysed rat liver tRNA are unable to accept amino acids in a reaction catalysed by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases from either rat liver or bovine mammary gland. Deacylated rat liver tRNA can however be aminoacylated in the presence of either enzyme. 3. Bovine mammary gland tRNA lacks the terminal adenine nucleotide at the 3'-terminus amino acid acceptor end, which can be replaced by incubation in the presence of rat liver nucleotide-incorporating enzyme, ATP and CTP. 4. The enzymically modified bovine tRNA (tRNApCpCpA) can bind labelled amino acids to form aminoacyl-tRNA, which can then transfer its labelled amino acids to growing polypeptide chains on ribosomes. 5. Molecules of rat liver tRNA or bovine mammary gland tRNA that lack the terminal adenine nucleotide or the terminal cytosine and adenine nucleotides inhibit the aminoacylation of normal rat liver tRNA to varying degrees. tRNA molecules lacking the terminal -pCpCpA nucleotide sequence exhibit the major inhibitory effect. 6. The enzyme fraction from bovine mammary gland corresponding to that containing the nucleotide-incorporating enzyme in rat liver is unable to catalyse the incorporation of cytosine and adenine nucleotides in pyrophosphorolysed rat liver tRNA and deacylated bovine tRNA. This fraction also markedly inhibits the action of the rat liver nucleotide-incorporating enzyme.