Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia

  title={Evidence for stone-tool-assisted consumption of animal tissues before 3.39 million years ago at Dikika, Ethiopia},
  author={Shannon P. McPherron and Zeresenay Alemseged and Curtis W. Marean and Jonathan G. Wynn and Denn{\'e} Reed and Denis Geraads and Ren{\'e} Bobe and Hamdallah B{\'e}arat},
The oldest direct evidence of stone tool manufacture comes from Gona (Ethiopia) and dates to between 2.6 and 2.5 million years (Myr) ago. At the nearby Bouri site several cut-marked bones also show stone tool use approximately 2.5 Myr ago. Here we report stone-tool-inflicted marks on bones found during recent survey work in Dikika, Ethiopia, a research area close to Gona and Bouri. On the basis of low-power microscopic and environmental scanning electron microscope observations, these bones… 
3-dimensional microscope analysis of bone and tooth surface modifications: comparisons of fossil specimens and replicas.
Molding methods used to replicate fragile prehistoric bones and teeth, where image quality was adversely affected by specimen translucency and reflectivity are described.
Cut marks on bone surfaces: influences on variation in the form of traces of ancient behaviour
The possibility that mechanical properties associated with edges of stone tools as well as the properties of bones themselves may contribute to the overall morphology of these marks and ultimately their placement in the archaeological record is investigated.
Tool-marked bones from before the Oldowan change the paradigm
Critiqued paper (2), which provided the earliest evidence for stone tool use and animal tissue consumption as evidenced by bones bearing tool-induced marks found at DIK-55 (Dikika, Ethiopia) and dated to 3.39 Ma, argued that all of the Dikika marks resulted from trampling, because asmall subset of these marks superficially resembled a small subset of experimentally trampled specimens.
Globalisation of Stone Tools and Beginnings of Mechanical Processing of Polymers
Based on research on influence of rubber and plastics on globalization, an interesting question arose: can we define the first globalization way of material culture? Manufacturing of first stone
3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya
The discovery of Lomekwi 3 is reported, a 3.3-million-year-old archaeological site where in situ stone artefacts occur in spatiotemporal association with Pliocene hominin fossils in a wooded palaeoenvironment and the name ‘Lomekwian’ is proposed, which predates the Oldowan by 700,000 years and marks a new beginning to the known archaeological record.
A new approach to raw material use in the exploitation of animal carcasses at BK (Upper Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania): a micro‐photogrammetric and geometric morphometric analysis of fossil cut marks
The use of innovative techniques such as micro‐photogrammetry and geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on the differentiation of cut marks made with different raw materials and, thus, link


2.5-million-year-old stone tools from Gona, Ethiopia
The artefacts show surprisingly sophisticated control of stone fracture mechanics, equivalent to much younger Oldowan assemblages of Early Pleistocene age, which indicates an unexpectedly long period of technological stasis in the Oldowan.
Early hominid stone tool production and technical skill 2.34 Myr ago in West Turkana, Kenya
A technological analysis of the core reduction sequences is described, based on these refits, which allows unprecedented accuracy in the understanding of flake production processes and can demonstrate greater cognitive capacity and motor skill than previously assumed for early hominids.
Percussion marks on bone surfaces as a new diagnostic of hominid behaviour
Since stone tool cut marks and carnivore tooth marks were first described systematically on Plio-Pleistocene archaeological bone1,2, bone surface modification has played a prominent role in
Trampling as a cause of bone surface damage and pseudo-cutmarks
There have been many recent observations of trampling and its effect on bone surfaces1–8 as well as some experimental investigation of the process9–14. Although there is known to be a relationship
A Quantitative Diagnosis of Notches Made by Hammerstone Percussion and Carnivore Gnawing on Bovid Long Bones
The frequency and morphology of notches produced on bovid long bones by carnivore gnawing (tooth notches) and hammerstone-on-anvil breakage (percussion notches) are quantified. Notches are
Blind tests of inter-analyst correspondence and accuracy in the identification of cut marks, percussion marks and carnivore tooth marks on bone surfaces
Abstract We show through blind tests that marks inflicted on bone surfaces by carnivore teeth, hammerstone percussion, and metal knife cutting and scraping can be distinguished with near perfect
Pliocene archaeological occurrences in the Lake Turkana basin
Abstract Archaeological evidence from the Lake Turkana basin, as well as from several other localities in eastern and central Africa, shows that stone tool manufacture and use occurred at least by