Evidence for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide as a direct immunoregulator in teleost head kidney.

In mammals, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent anti-inflammatory factor, showing that it inhibits the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and enhances the production of anti-inflammatory factors. However, whether fish PACAP plays similar regulatory roles as seen in mammals remains unclear. In the present… CONTINUE READING