Global distribution and origin of target site insecticide resistance mutations in Tetranychus urticae.
The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) has developed resistance to pyrethroid insecticides as a result of a mechanism conferring reduced nervous system sensitivity, termed knockdown resistance (kdr). This reduced sensitivity is caused by two mutations, L1014F (kdr) and M918T (super-kdr), in the para-type voltage gated sodium channel. Kdr mutations in M. persicae are found in field populations world-wide. In order to investigate whether this situation is due to the mutations arising independently in different populations or by single mutation events that have spread by migration, regions flanking these mutations were sequenced from different geographical areas. The DNA sequences produced, which included a 1 kb intron, were found to be highly conserved. Several different haplotypes were identified containing kdr and super-kdr. Whilst these results could indicate either multiple independent origins of both mutations or recombination following a single origin, given the short timescale of resistance development, multiple independent origins of kdr and super-kdr are the most plausible interpretation.