Evidence for multiple liquid–liquid phase transitions in carbon, and the Friedel ordering of its liquid state

@article{Dharmawardana2022EvidenceFM,
  title={Evidence for multiple liquid–liquid phase transitions in carbon, and the Friedel ordering of its liquid state},
  author={M. W. Chandre Dharma-wardana and Dennis D. Klug},
  journal={Physics of Plasmas},
  year={2022}
}
Carbon, the fourth most abundant element in the Universe forms a metallic fluid with transient covalent bonds on melting. Its liquid-liquid phase transitions, intensely sought using simulations had been elusive. Here we use density functional theory (DFT) simulations with up to 108 atoms using molecular dynamics, as well as one-atom DFT as implemented in the neutral pseudo-atom method where multi-atom effects are treated by ion-ion correlation functionals. Both methods use electron-electron… 
Effective electronic forces and potentials from ab initio path integral Monte Carlo simulations.
The rigorous description of correlated quantum many-body systems constitutes one of the most challenging tasks in contemporary physics and related disciplines. In this context, a particularly useful

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