Evidence for evolutionary conservation of sex-determining genes

@article{Raymond1998EvidenceFE,
  title={Evidence for evolutionary conservation of sex-determining genes},
  author={Christopher S. Raymond and Caroline E. Shamu and Michael M. Shen and Kelly J. Seifert and Betsy A Hirsch and Jonathan Hodgkin and David Zarkower},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1998},
  volume={391},
  pages={691-695}
}
Most metazoans occur as two sexes. Surprisingly, molecular analyses have hitherto indicated that sex-determining mechanisms differ completely between phyla. Here we present evidence to the contrary. We have isolated the male sexual regulatory gene mab-3 (ref. 1) from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and found that it is related to the Drosophila melanogaster sexual regulatory gene doublesex (dsx). Both genes encode proteins with a DNA-binding motif that we have named the ‘DM domain’. Both… 
DMRT1/Dmrt1, the sex determining or sex differentiating gene in Vertebrata.
TLDR
This work has given proof of evolutionarily conserved function in genes which share a novel DNA binding DM domain, primarily identified in two invertebrate sex regulatory genes: doublesex of Drosophila melanogaster and mab-3 of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Conservation of the global sex determination gene tra-1 in distantly related nematodes.
TLDR
This work uses an unbiased forward genetic approach and isolated several mutants with a hermaphrodite to male transformation of the XX karyotype in P. pacificus, providing the first evidence for the conservation of a global sex determination gene over a time period of at least 200 million years.
Dmrt1, a gene related to worm and fly sexual regulators, is required for mammalian testis differentiation.
TLDR
It is shown that murine Dmrt1 is essential for postnatal testis differentiation, with mutant phenotypes similar to those caused by human chromosome 9p deletions that remove the gene.
Expression of Dmrt1 in the genital ridge of mouse and chicken embryos suggests a role in vertebrate sexual development.
TLDR
Based on sequence, map position, and expression patterns, it is suggested that Dmrt1 is likely to play a role in vertebrate sexual development and therefore that DM domain genes may play a roles in sexual development in a wide range of phyla.
Novel paralogy relations among human chromosomes support a link between the phylogeny of doublesex-related genes and the evolution of sex determination.
TLDR
This work identified and characterized five novel human DM genes, distinct from previously described family members, and collated data indicating these chromosomal regions harbor multiple syntenic genes sharing highly specific paralogy relations, suggesting that they arose early during vertebrate evolution.
Similarity of DNA binding and transcriptional regulation by Caenorhabditis elegans MAB-3 and Drosophila melanogaster DSX suggests conservation of sex determining mechanisms.
TLDR
This work shows that MAB-3, like the DSX proteins, is a direct regulator of yolk protein gene transcription, the first direct link between the sex determination regulatory pathway and sex-specific structural genes in C. elegans, suggesting that nematodes and insects use at least some of the same mechanisms to control sexual development.
The remarkable ubiquity of DM domain factors as regulators of sexual phenotype: ancestry or aptitude?
TLDR
The DM domain is a cysteine-rich DNA-binding motif first recognized in proteins encoded by the Drosophila sex determination gene doublesex, and the DM family was named on the basis of these two genes (dsx/mab-3).
The sex determining gene of medaka: a Y-specific DM domain gene (DMY) is required for male development
TLDR
These findings strongly suggest that the sex-specific DMY is required for normal testicular development and is a prime candidate for the medaka sex-determining gene.
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