Evidence for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder

@article{Loeber1993EvidenceFD,
  title={Evidence for developmentally based diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder},
  author={Rolf Loeber and Kate E Keenan and Benjamin B. Lahey and Stephanie M. Green and Christopher Thomas},
  journal={Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
  year={1993},
  volume={21},
  pages={377-410}
}
This paper compares the validity of DSM-III-R diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) and an alternative option which is subdivided into three levels according to developmental sequence and severity: modified oppositional disorder (MODD), intermediate CD (ICD), and advanced CD (ACD). Using a sample of 177 boys followed over 3 years, both the DSM-III-R and the alternative diagnostic constructs are evaluated on three criteria: symptom discriminative validity… 

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It is as reasonable to apply the DSM-IV nosology to preschoolers as it is to apply it to older individuals, and psychopathology appears to be differentiated among preschoolers much as it was among older children, and adolescents.

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It is apparent that there is not one single causative factor; thus it is not likely that one single modality will suffice to treat CD and future steps will involve the restructuring of diagnostic criteria to capture adequate subtypes and indicators, clarification of the neurological underpinnings of the disorder, and refinement in the models available to explain the varied pathways to DBD.

Confirmatory Factor Analyses Examining Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Other Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

The present study examined and compared each of these models using confirmatory factor analyses and found support for the three-factor ADHD model was obtained when the ADHD symptoms were examined in isolation, but the two-factor model of ADHD was supported when ADHD and ODD/CD Symptoms were examined together as part of a comprehensive model of disruptive behavior disorders.

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This paper briefly discusses the history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before proceeding to review and critique the recently published DSM-IV criteria for ADHD as well as the
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