Evidence for counting in insects

  title={Evidence for counting in insects},
  author={Marie Dacke and Mandyam V. Srinivasan},
  journal={Animal Cognition},
Here we investigate the counting ability in honeybees by training them to receive a food reward after they have passed a specific number of landmarks. The distance to the food reward is varied frequently and randomly, whilst keeping the number of intervening landmarks constant. Thus, the bees cannot identify the food reward in terms of its distance from the hive. We find that bees can count up to four objects, when they are encountered sequentially during flight. Furthermore, bees trained in… 
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  • 2019
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Distance estimation by foraging honeybees
  • Esch, Burns
  • Engineering
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1996
An 'optical flow hypothesis': bees use the speed of retinal image motion perceived from the ground to estimate the distance flown, because flight altitude is important for distance estimation by Retinal image flow, because objects move faster and farther across the retina when the bee flies closer to the ground.
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The results suggest that bees assign appropriate significance to odometric and landmark cues in a more flexible and dynamic way than previously envisaged.
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