The attenuation of morphine-conditioned place preference following chronic mild stress is reversed by a CCKB receptor antagonist
Vanderhaeghen et al. reported the occurrence of gastrin-like immunoreactivity in the mammalian brain. Subsequent studies have revealed that this immunoreactivity corresponded mainly to the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8), which has a COOH-terminal pentapeptide identical to gastrin. Also, two peptides resembling the NH- and the COOH-terminal tetrapeptide fragments of CCK-8 are present in the central nervous system (CNS). Using COOH-terminal-specific antisera raised to gastrin and/or CCK, the distribution of CCK neurones has been described with immunohistochemical techniques. Although high numbers of cells and nerve terminals are found in cortical areas, the CCK systems are also present in most other parts of the brain and spinal cord. In the CNS, true gastrin molecules, gastrin-17 and gastrin-34 have been located only in the neurohypophysis, hypothalamus and occasionally in the medulla oblongata (unpublished results). We describe here the occurrence of peptides in meso-limbic dopamine neurones in the rat brain. Evidence has also been obtained that mesencephalic dopamine neurones in the human brain contain similar peptides.