Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus.

@article{Azhar2014EvidenceFC,
  title={Evidence for camel-to-human transmission of MERS coronavirus.},
  author={Esam Ibraheem Azhar and Sherif Aly El-Kafrawy and Suha Abdulall Farraj and Ahmed Mohamed Hassan and Muneera S Al-Saeed and Anwar M. Hashem and Tariq A. Madani},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2014},
  volume={370 26},
  pages={
          2499-505
        }
}
We describe the isolation and sequencing of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) obtained from a dromedary camel and from a patient who died of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection after close contact with camels that had rhinorrhea. Nasal swabs collected from the patient and from one of his nine camels were positive for MERS-CoV RNA. In addition, MERS-CoV was isolated from the patient and the camel. The full genome sequences of the two isolates were identical. Serologic… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Unresolved questions in the zoonotic transmission of MERS
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: epidemiology and disease control measures
TLDR
Serologic tests showed significant infection in adult camels compared to juvenile camels, and determining the exact route of transmission from camels to humans would further add to the control measures of MERS-CoV infection.
MERS-CoV spillover at the camel-human interface
TLDR
It is shown that human outbreaks in the Arabian peninsula are driven by seasonally varying zoonotic transfer of viruses from camels, and without heretofore unseen evolution of host tropism, MERS-CoV is unlikely to become endemic in humans.
Bactrian camels shed large quantities of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after experimental infection*
TLDR
Data are similar to infections reported with dromedary camel infections and indicate that Bactrians are susceptible to MERS-CoV and given their overlapping range are at risk of introduction and establishment of MSPV within the Bactrian camel populations.
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Transmission
TLDR
Because a proportion of case-patients do not report direct contact with camels or with persons who have symptomatic MERS, further research is needed to conclusively determine additional mechanisms of transmission, to inform public health practice, and to refine current precautionary recommendations.
Evidence for zoonotic origins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus
TLDR
The evidence supporting a bat/camel origin of human MERS-CoV infection and current knowledge on the modes of camel-to-human transmission of MSPS are reviewed.
Prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates
High seroprevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels has been previously reported in United Arab Emirates (UAE). However, the molecular detection of the
MERS coronavirus: diagnostics, epidemiology and transmission
TLDR
While the basic virology of MERS-CoV has advanced over the past three years, understanding of the interplay between camel, environment, and human remains limited.
High Prevalence of MERS-CoV Infection in Camel Workers in Saudi Arabia
TLDR
It is shown that approximately 50% of camel workers (CWs) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and 0% of controls were previously infected with MERS-CoV, and a possible explanation for repeated MERS outbreaks is that CWs develop mild disease and then transmit the virus to uninfected individuals.
Global status of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: a systematic review
TLDR
All published data on MERS-coronavirus (CoV) in the global camel population is compiled and analysed to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections in dromedary camels.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 17 REFERENCES
Family cluster of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections.
TLDR
A family case cluster of Mers-CoV infection is described, including the clinical presentation, treatment outcomes, and household relationships of three young men who became ill with MERS- coV infection after the hospitalization of an elderly male relative, who died of the disease.
Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia.
TLDR
The clinical picture was remarkably similar to that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003 and reminds us that animal coronaviruses can cause severe disease in humans.
Close Relative of Human Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bat, South Africa
TLDR
The identification of a South Africa bat derived CoV that has an even closer phylogenetic relationship with MERS-CoV is reported, and is as close as that of SARS- coV and the most closely related bat coronavirus known.
Hospital outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
TLDR
Person-to-person transmission of MERS-CoV can occur in health care settings and may be associated with considerable morbidity and surveillance and infection-control measures are critical to a global public health response.
Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, June 2013.
TLDR
The newly developed ppNT assay does not require Biosafety Level 3 containment and is thus a relatively high-throughput assay, well suited for large-scale seroepidemiology studies which are needed to better understand the ecology and epidemiology of MERS-CoV.
Severe respiratory illness caused by a novel coronavirus, in a patient transferred to the United Kingdom from the Middle East, September 2012.
  • A. Bermingham, M. Chand, M. Zambon
  • Medicine, Biology
    Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin
  • 2012
TLDR
The clinical and virological features of a novel coronavirus infection causing severe respiratory illness in a patient transferred to London, United Kingdom, from the Gulf region of the Middle East are described.
...
1
2
...