Evidence for advanced carnivory in fossil armadillos (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae)

  title={Evidence for advanced carnivory in fossil armadillos (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Dasypodidae)},
  author={Sergio Fabi{\'a}n Vizcaino and G. De iuliis},
Abstract The euphractine Macroeuphractus outesi, from the late Pliocene Chapadmalalan SALMA of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, is one of the largest dasypodids known. Its skull preserves features remarkable for an armadillo. Its complete dental arcade and large caniniform teeth have received attention in the literature as indicative of scavenging behavior. This report considers the degree of carnivory within the context of the generally omnivorous feeding behavior of euphractine armadillos… 

Functional and phylogenetic assessment of the masticatory adaptations in Cingulata (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

The morphological and adaptive diversity suggests a more extensive cladogenesis than that reflected by current systematic schemes, and some cingulates have evolved mechanical solutions that are neither shared by closely related taxa nor have current analogues that can be used to investigate and to interpret adaptations of lineages without living representatives.

Feeding mechanics and dietary implications in the fossil sloth Neocnus (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Megalonychidae) from haiti

Osteological characters related to feeding were examined, along with comparative estimations of bite force with the extant tree sloths, Bradypus and Choloepus, and their known dietary habits as a means to infer aspects of the paleodiet of Neocnus.

Loss of Ancient Diversity of Xenarthrans and the Value of Protecting Extant Armadillos, Sloths and Anteaters

This contribution provides two examples of the ecological diversity of xenarthrans in the geological past that largely surpass the one the authors know today and urges that autochthony and past taxonomic richness and ecologic diversity be recognized as values for establishing conservation priorities and policies.

The Xenarthrans: Armadillos, Glyptodonts, Anteaters, and Sloths

A discussion of the possible but unconfirmed origins of the xenarthra is suggested, and the group is presented as one of the most ancient lineages of modern mammals and native South Americans.

Ecomorfología de Xenartros Extintos: Análisis de la Mandíbula con Métodos de Morfometría Geométrica

Abstract ECOMORPHOLOGY OF EXTINCT XENARTHRANS: ANALYSIS OF THE MANDIBLE USING GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRICS METHODS. In the past, xenarthrans had a broad morphological diversity. However, due to the fact

The bite force of the largest fossil rodent (Hystricognathi, Caviomorpha, Dinomyidae)

The incisors seem to be stronger than expected for this bite force implying that the bite forces may have been greater than 3000 N, and three hypotheses are considered: allometric effects, teeth digging or defence against predators, to explain the results.

Cranial osteology of the pampathere Holmesina floridanus (Xenarthra: Cingulata; Blancan NALMA), including a description of an isolated petrosal bone

This study identifies a suite of apomorphic cranial features that serve to diagnose a putative, progressive series of more inclusive monophyletic groups, including the species Holmesina floridanus, the genus Holmesina, pampatheres, pampsatheres plus glyptodonts, and a clade formed by pamp atheres, glyptidonts and Proeutatus.

The teeth of the “toothless”: novelties and key innovations in the evolution of xenarthrans (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

  • S. Vizcaino
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2009
The combination of tooth features that characterize xenarthrans might be seen as the key innovation for the ecologic diversity developed at least since the Oligocene, breaking the mold of the tribosphenic condition that constrained the evolution of the other major clades of mammals.




Signs are that the Plio-Pleistocene paleobiogeographic distribution of pampatheres is correlated with masticatory function (and hence diet), with P. typum, the species best adapted for grinding coarse vegetation, occurring in the more arid Pampean regions of South America.

Skull Shape, Masticatory Apparatus, and Diet of Vassallia and Holmesina (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Pampatheriidae): When Anatomy Constrains Destiny

The various skeletal and dental features analyzed suggest that the masticatory apparatus of the pampatheres was more powerful and efficient in transverse chewing than in dasypodids and that they were primarily grazers consuming mainly coarse vegetation.

The ground sloth Megatherium americanum: Skull shape, bite forces, and diet

  • Bargo
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2001
The morphology of the masticatory apparatus is described and analyses in order to interpret the jaw mechanics of M. americanum, and the evidence provided here indicates that it probably had a browsing diet in open habitats, but also could have fed on moderate to soft tough food.

The masticatory apparatus of the armadillo Eutatus (Mammalia, Cingulata) and some allied genera: paleobiology and evolution

The analysis of the masticatory apparatus of the eutatines allows us to state that Eutatus and Proeutatus exhibit the most specialized morphology known for an herbivore with an armadillo-like skull pattern.

The anatomy and function of the feeding apparatus in two armadillos (Dasypoda): anatomy is not destiny

The morphology and function of the masticatory apparatus in two armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcinctus are compared to highlight the difficulties in predicting diet from morphological analysis and raise questions concerning the behavioural limits imposed by morphological specialization.

Carved teeth and strange jaws: how glyptodonts masticated

In this paper, the highly peculiar masticatory apparatus of glyptodonts is studied. The general morphology of the skull is analysed using a morphometric procedure, the Resistant Fit Theta Rho

The evolution of armadillos, anteaters and sloths depicted by nuclear and mitochondrial phylogenies: implications for the status of the enigmatic fossil Eurotamandua

Phylogenetic analyses confirm the order's monophyly and that of its three major lineages: armadillos, anteaters and sloths (‘Tardigrada’, renamed in ‘Folivora’), and results strongly support the grouping of hairy xenarthrans (anteaters and sloth) into Pilosa.

Ulnar dimensions and fossoriality in armadillos

It is concluded that the index of fossorial ability (IFA) discriminates among the species according to their fossorial habits within orders, but it is not equally useful in distinguishing fossorial species between orders.

The Fossil Mammal Fauna of South America

Of the three southern continents, South America was more isolated during the Tertiary than Africa, less isolated than Australia. Its record of Cenozoic mammalian life is better than that of either.

On The Measurement of Morphology and its Change

This review is concerned with quantitative comparisons of biological shape wherein some parts of specimens obviously have changed and others parts have not.