Evidence for a Canonical Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Light Curve in the Swift XRT Data

  title={Evidence for a Canonical Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglow Light Curve in the Swift XRT Data},
  author={J A Nousek and Chryssa Kouveliotou and Dirk Grupe and Kim Page and Jonathan Granot and Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz and S. K. Patel and David N. Burrows and Valeria Mangano and Scott Douglas Barthelmy and A P Beardmore and Sergio Campana and M. Capalbi and Guido L. Chincarini and G Cusumano and Abraham D. Falcone and Neil Gehrels and Paolo Giommi and Mike R. Goad and Olivier Godet and Cheryl Hurkett and Jamie A. Kennea and Alberto Moretti and P. T. O’Brien and J. P. Osborne and Patrizia Romano and Gianpiero Tagliaferri and Alan A. Wells},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
We present new observations of the early X-ray afterglows of the first 27 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) well observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The early X-ray afterglows show a canonical behavior, where the light curve broadly consists of three distinct power-law segments: (1) an initial very steep decay (/t � � with 3P � 1 P5), followed by (2) a very shallow decay (0:5P � 2 P1:0), and finally (3) a somewhat steeper decay (1P � 3 P1:5). These power-law segments are separated by two… Expand

Figures and Tables from this paper

Towards the properties of long gamma-ray burst progenitors with Swift data
We investigate the properties of both the prompt and X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the burst frame with a sample of 33 Swift GRBs. Assuming that the steep decay segment in theExpand
Implications of the early X-ray afterglow light curves of Swift gamma-ray bursts
According to current models, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced when the energy carried by a relativistic outflow is dissipated and converted into radiation. The efficiency of this process, ∈ γ ,Expand
We study an extensive sample of 87 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which there are well-sampled and simultaneous optical and X-ray light curves. We extract the cleanest possible signal of the afterglowExpand
The Early X-Ray Emission from GRBs
Observations of the early X-ray emission for a sample of 40 gamma-ray bursts obtained using the Swift satellite, for which the narrow-field instruments were pointed at the burst within 10 minutes of the trigger, show that theX-ray light curve can be well described by an exponential that relaxes into a power law. Expand
The prompt–early afterglow connection in gamma-ray bursts: implications for the early afterglow physics
The early X-ray afterglow of gamma-ray bursts revealed by Swift carried many surprises. Following an initial steep decay the light curve often exhibits a plateau phase that can last up to severalExpand
Using Swift observations of prompt and afterglow emission to classify GRBs
  • P. O’Brien, R. Willingale
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2007
An analysis of early Burst Alert Telescope and X-ray Telescope data for 107 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Swift satellite is presented and a classification scheme for GRBs is proposed based on this behaviour. Expand
Anatomy of a dark burst – the afterglow of GRB 060108
The optical to X-ray spectral index (βOX) confirm GRB 060108 to be one of the optically darkest bursts detected, and the observations rule out a high redshift as the reason for the optical faintness of GRB 60108. Expand
Can a double component outflow explain the X-ray and optical lightcurves of Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts?
An increasing sample of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by Swift show evidence of ‘chromatic breaks’, i.e. breaks that are present in the X-ray but not in the optical. We find that in a significantExpand
The late peaking afterglow of GRB 100418A
GRB 100418A is a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) at redshift z = 0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves. After an initial short-lived, rapidExpand
The Full Curvature Effect Expected in Early X-Ray Afterglow Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts
We explore the influence of the full curvature effect on the flux of the early X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in cases where the spectrum of the intrinsic emission is a power law. WeExpand


Physical Processes Shaping Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves: Theoretical Implications from the Swift X-Ray Telescope Observations
With the successful launch of the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer, a rich trove of early X-ray afterglow data has been collected by its onboard X-Ray Telescope (XRT). Some interesting features areExpand
GRB 050117: Simultaneous gamma-ray and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite
The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer performed its first autonomous, X-ray follow-up to a newly detected GRB on 2005 January 17, within 193 s of the burst trigger by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope, and no optical afterglow could be confirmed. Expand
The Dynamics and Light Curves of Beamed Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows
The energy requirements of gamma-ray bursts have in past been poorly constrained because of three major uncertainties: the distances to bursts, the degree of burst beaming, and the efficiency ofExpand
A Standard Kinetic Energy Reservoir in Gamma-Ray Burst Afterglows
We present a comprehensive sample of X-ray observations of 41 γ-ray burst (GRB) afterglows, as well as jet opening angles, θj, for a subset with measured jet breaks. We show that there is aExpand
An unexpectedly rapid decline in the X-ray afterglow emission of long γ-ray bursts
‘Long’ γ-ray bursts (GRBs) are commonly accepted to originate in the explosion of particularly massive stars, which give rise to highly relativistic jets. Inhomogeneities in the expanding flow resultExpand
The Discovery of the Optical and Near-IR Afterglows of the First Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts
We present optical and near-infrared searches for afterglow emission from the first four Swift bursts with accurate positions from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). Using telescopes at Las Campanas, Keck,Expand
On the energy of gamma-ray bursts
We show that gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow observations strongly suggest, within the fireball model framework, that radiating electrons are shock accelerated to a power-law energy distribution,Expand
Observation of contemporaneous optical radiation from a γ-ray burst
The origin of γ-ray bursts (GRBs) has been enigmatic since their discovery. The situation improved dramatically in 1997, when the rapid availability of precise coordinates, for the bursts allowed theExpand
GRB 990123: Evidence that the Gamma Rays Come from a Central Engine
GRB 990123 was a long, complex gamma-ray burst with an optical transient that started early within the gamma-ray phase. The peak and power-law decay of the early optical emission strongly indicateExpand
The Swift gamma-ray burst mission
The Swift mission will determine the origin of GRB, classify GRBs and search for new types, study the interaction of the ultrarelativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium, and use GRBs to study the early universe out to z >10. Expand