Evidence for a ‘Paravascular’ fluid circulation in the mammalian central nervous system, provided by the rapid distribution of tracer protein throughout the brain from the subarachnoid space

@article{Rennels1985EvidenceFA,
  title={Evidence for a ‘Paravascular’ fluid circulation in the mammalian central nervous system, provided by the rapid distribution of tracer protein throughout the brain from the subarachnoid space},
  author={Marshall L. Rennels and Thomas F. Gregory and Otis R. Blaumanis and Katsukuni Fujimoto and P. A. Grady},
  journal={Brain Research},
  year={1985},
  volume={326},
  pages={47-63}
}
Delivery of Solutes in Cerebrospinal Fluid to Central Neurons via “Paravascular” Fluid Pathways in the Central Nervous System a
TLDR
In the brainstem, vascular outlining occurred after as little as 4 min HRP circulation, and localized groups of tracer-containing neurons were observed in the hypothalamus and in lateral tegmental zones of the midbrain, pons and medulla, and this rapid cellular uptake was not observed elsewhere.
A method for microscopic studies of cerebral angioarchitecture and vascular- parenchymal relationships, based on the demonstration of ·paravascular’ fluid pathways in the mammalian central nervous system
TLDR
Intraparenchymal blood vessels throughout the CNS are vividly demonstrated for light microscopy by HRP reaction product in their perivascular spaces or basal laminae.
Studies of cerebrospinal fluid flow and penetration into brain following lateral ventricle and cisterna magna injections of the tracer [14C]inulin in rat
TLDR
Sustained tracer entry from subarachnoid spaces suggests that some areas act as depots to trap circulating material and may contribute to the pattern of deep penetration at later time-points.
Distribution of extracellular tracers in perivascular spaces of the rat brain
TLDR
It is confirmed that perivascular spaces may serve as channels for fluid exchange between brain and CSF, but do not support the idea that CSF circulates rapidly through brain tissue via periv vascular spaces.
Evidence for rapid fluid flow from the subarachnoid space into the spinal cord central canal in the rat
TLDR
The results suggest that there is a normal flow of fluid from the subarachnoid space, into the perivascular spaces, across the interstitial space and into the central canal, which would add considerable support to the theory that non-communicating syringomyelia develops in segments of central canal isolated by occlusion or stenosis at each end.
Distribution of intraventricularly injected horseradish peroxidase in cerebrospinal fluid compartments of the rat spinal cord
SummaryThe circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid along the central canal and its access to the parenchyma of the spinal cord of the rat have been analyzed by injection of horseradish peroxidase
Comparative Physiology of the Blood-Brain Barrier
TLDR
This chapter discusses the insights to be gained from the comparative approach, and presents some of the key conclusions.
Directional and compartmentalised drainage of interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid from the rat brain
TLDR
These studies demonstrate the diffuse spread of fluidborne tracers through cerebral white matter in the rat, the perivascular spread of tracer in grey matter and the compartmentalised directional flow or tracer through the subarachnoid space to the cribriform plate and nasal lymphatics.
Perivascular CSF flow in the rat cerebellum
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References

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Innervation of Capillaries by Local Neurons in the Cat Hypothalamus: A Light Microscopic Study with Horseradish Peroxidase
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TLDR
The arrangement and distribution of certain neurons in the periarteriolar neuropil suggest that they may provide a substrate for local neural influences on the hypothalamic microcirculation.
DISTRIBUTION OF INTRAVENTRICULAR HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE IN NORMAL AND HYDROCEPHALIC CAT BRAINS
TLDR
Since the distribution of HRP in brain is determined by diffusion, its use as a tracer for the bulk movement of CSF through nervous tissue is limited and it is, however, an excellent extracellular space marker in electron microscopy.
Flow of cerebral interstitial fluid as indicated by the removal of extracellular markers from rat caudate nucleus.
TLDR
Analysis of the distribution of protein 4–8 hr after injection suggests that ISF flows from narrow intercellular clefts of the neuropil along a system of extracellular pathways including perivascular and periventricular areas and between fiber tracts, which appears to drain into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and possibly also into fenestrated vessels within the brain.
FINE STRUCTURAL LOCALIZATION OF A BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER TO EXOGENOUS PEROXIDASE
TLDR
These findings localize, at a fine structural level, a "barrier" to the passage of peroxidase at the endothelium of vessels in the cerebral cortex in mice, particularly with reference to a recent study in which similar techniques were applied to capillaries in heart and skeletal muscle.
Kinetics of horseradish peroxidase migration through cerebral cortex
TLDR
The failure of experimental points to conform to an ideal diffusion curve indicates that simple diffusion alone is an inadequate explanation of the rate of movement of large molecular solutes from the subarachnoid space through the cerebral cortical ECS.
The intracerebral movement of proteins injected into blood and cerebrospinal fluid of mice.
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Progress in brain research
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TLDR
The chapter states that the anatomical barriers to the movement of peroxidase from blood to ventricular CSF consist of the structures which are probably tight junctions between the apices of the choroidal epithelial cells and, perhaps, their ventricular surface.
Bulk flow of interstitial fluid after intracranial injection of blue dextran 2000.
TLDR
Results indicate the need to reevaluate the role of perivascular spaces in net fluid exchange between brain and cerebrospinal fluid and indicate that Blue Dextran is transported away from the injection site by bulk flow of cerebral ISF, possibly along the course of cerebral blood vessels.
The penetration of radiolabeled substances into rabbit brain from subarachnoid space.
TLDR
The penetration of several radioactive compounds into rabbit brain tissue, after 30 min of subarachnoid perfusion, has been studied and the significance of these findings in relation to the role of the CSF as a source and sink of materials within the brain is presented.
Efflux of radiolabeled polyethylene glycols and albumin from rat brain.
TLDR
In efflux rate, despite a fivefold difference in diffusion coefficient, is consistent with convective losses from brain, and the maximal rate of interstitial fluid removal estimated on the basis of these data is 0.11 microliter.
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