Evidence for Sorghum Domestication in Fourth Millennium BC Eastern Sudan: Spikelet Morphology from Ceramic Impressions of the Butana Group

@article{Winchell2017EvidenceFS,
  title={Evidence for Sorghum Domestication in Fourth Millennium BC Eastern Sudan: Spikelet Morphology from Ceramic Impressions of the Butana Group},
  author={Frank Winchell and Chris J. Stevens and Charlene Murphy and Louis Champion and Dorian Q. Fuller},
  journal={Current Anthropology},
  year={2017},
  volume={58},
  pages={673 - 683}
}
Since the 1970s, the quest for finding the origins of domesticated sorghum in Africa has remained elusive despite the fact that sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. sensu stricto) is one of the world’s most important cereals. Recognized as originating from wild populations in Africa (Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf), however, the date and cultural context of its domestication has been controversial, with many scholars inferring an early Holocene origin in parallel with better-known cereal… 
On the Origins and Dissemination of Domesticated Sorghum and Pearl Millet across Africa and into India: a View from the Butana Group of the Far Eastern Sahel
TLDR
The middle Holocene Sudanese archaeological data is reviewed for the first time, to situate the origins and spread of these two native summer rainfall cereals in what is proposed to be their eastern Sahelian Sudan gateway to the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean trade.
Evidence of Sorghum Cultivation and Possible Pearl Millet in the Second Millennium BC at Kassala, Eastern Sudan
TLDR
The results from this study illustrate that as late as the early second millennium BC, the inhabitants of Kassala were still exploiting a mixture of morphologically wild and domesticated Sorghum bicolor and played an important role in the diffusion of Africa crops including pearl millet to Asia.
Sorghum Domestication and Diversification: A Current Archaeobotanical Perspective
Sorghum bicolor, one of the world’s five most important crops, originated in Africa. While this has long been clear, accumulating data from both archaeobotany and genetics, provides the basis for a
Agricultural diversification in West Africa: an archaeobotanical study of the site of Sadia (Dogon Country, Mali)
TLDR
Flotation samples from systematic flotation samples taken at the settlement mounds of Sadia (Mali) report diversification at the end of the 1st millennium AD, which matches with other evidence found in West Africa.
Origin, Domestication and Diffusion of Sorghum bicolor
Millets in eastern Sudan: an archaeobotanical study
ABSTRACT Charred botanical remains and plant impressions in pottery sherds and baked clay pieces recovered during survey and archaeological excavation mainly at Mahal Teglinos (Kassala, K-1), Sudan,
Transition From Wild to Domesticated Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum) Revealed in Ceramic Temper at Three Middle Holocene Sites in Northern Mali
TLDR
The evolution of domesticated pearl millet in western Africa is charted using three characteristics: the evolution of nonshattering stalked involucre; the appearance of multiple spikelet involucres, usually paired spikelets; and the increase in grain size.
Variability and preservation biases in the archaeobotanical record of Eleusine coracana (finger millet): evidence from Iron Age Kenya
Eleusine coracana (finger millet) is a nutritious and easily storable grain that can be grown in unfavourable environments and is important to the food security of millions of farmers in Africa and
New findings on the significance of Jebel Moya in the eastern Sahel
TLDR
New excavation data and new radiometric dates for Jebel Moya suggest revisions to previous chronological understandings of the site, and its continued potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central Sudan and the eastern Sahel is reinforced.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 50 REFERENCES
Sorghum in the Economy of the Early Neolithic Nomadic Tribes at Nabta Playa, Southern Egypt
The 8000 years old early neolithic site E-75-6 at Nabta Playa, southern Egypt, yielded charred plant remains of over 120 taxa. Several species of edible plants were recovered, many of which are still
Contrasting Patterns in Crop Domestication and Domestication Rates: Recent Archaeobotanical Insights from the Old World
  • D. Fuller
  • Biology, Geography
    Annals of botany
  • 2007
TLDR
Data suggest that in domesticated grasses, changes in grain size and shape evolved prior to non-shattering ears or panicles, suggesting a need to reconsider the role of sickle harvesting in domestication.
Early domesticated sorghum from Central Sudan
TLDR
The remains of wickerwork matting and many fragments of thick stalks of cereal grass suggest that the pit may have been a silo lined with stalks and mats, not dissimilar to the pits made today in the area for storing grain.
THE ORIGIN OF SORGHUM BICOLOR. II. DISTRIBUTION AND DOMESTICATION
TLDR
The complex species Sorghum bicolor (Linn.) Moench (Gramineae) includes all cultivated sorghums as well as a group of semiwild plants mostly associated with them as weeds which indicates that they all belong to a single species.
Presumed domestication? Evidence for wild rice cultivation and domestication in the fifth millennium BC of the Lower Yangtze region
TLDR
It is proposed that, at least for the Lower Yangtze region, the advent of rice domestication around 4000 BC was preceded by a phase of pre-domestication cultivation that began around 5000 BC, and the implications for sedentism and the spread of agriculture as a long term process are discussed.
Plant use at an early Islamic merchant town in the West African Sahel: the archaeobotany of Essouk-Tadmakka (Mali)
We present archaeobotanical data from the early Islamic era (ca. a.d. 750–1400) obtained from excavations at Essouk-Tadmakka, an important trans-Saharan trading town site in the West African Sahel
Image and statistical analyses of early sorghum remains (8000 B.P.) from the Nabta Playa archaeological site in the Western Desert, southern Egypt
TLDR
Smaller grain size and the lack of any spikelets containing attached branchlets of the inflorescence or rachis fragments suggest that the material harvested and eaten at the Nabta Playa site were of a wild type.
Sedentism, cultivation, and plant domestication in the holocene middle Nile region
AbstractThis paper focuses on preconditions for, and consequences of, sedentism and the emergence of cultivation. Archaeological material from sites in the Middle Nile basin dated to the mid-9th
A simulation of the effect of inbreeding on crop domestication genetics with comments on the integration of archaeobotany and genetics: a reply to Honne and Heun
TLDR
A new simulation of a self-pollinating (2% outbreeding) plant compared to panmictic populations finds that the general outcome is similar with multiple starts of cultivation drifting towards apparent monophyly in genome-wide phylogenetic analysis over hundreds of generations, suggesting that multiple origins of cultivation of a given species may be missed in some forms of modern genetic analysis.
Nabta Playa and Its Role in Northeastern African Prehistory
Abstract Nabta Playa basin offers an unprecedented longitudinal view on the emergence, consolidation and complexification on human–livestock relationships, from the early stage of the Early Holocene
...
...