Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector

@article{Aartsen2013EvidenceFH,
  title={Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector},
  author={M. Aartsen and R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and M. Ackermann and J. Adams and J. Aguilar and M. Ahlers and D. Altmann and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and S. Barwick and V. Baum and R. Bay and J. Beatty and S. Bechet and J. Becker Tjus and K. Becker and M. Benabderrahmane and S. BenZvi and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and A. Bernhard and D. Bertrand and D. Besson and G. Binder and D. Bindig and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and J. Blumenthal and D. Boersma and S. Bohaichuk and C. Bohm and D. Bose and S. B{\"o}ser and O. Botner and L. Brayeur and H. Bretz and A. Brown and R. Bruijn and J. Brunner and M. Carson and J. Casey and M. Casier and D. Chirkin and A. Christov and B. Christy and K. Clark and F. Clevermann and S. Coenders and S. Cohen and D. Cowen and A. C. Cruz Silva and M. Danninger and J. Daughhetee and J. Davis and M. Day and C. De Clercq and S. De Ridder and P. Desiati and K. de Vries and M. de With and T. DeYoung and J. C. D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez and M. Dunkman and R. Eagan and B. Eberhardt and B. Eichmann and J. Eisch and R. Ellsworth and S. Euler and P. Evenson and O. Fadiran and A. Fazely and A. Fedynitch and J. Feintzeig and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and T. Fischer-Wasels and S. Flis and A. Franckowiak and K. Frantzen and T. Fuchs and T. Gaisser and J. Gallagher and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and T. Gl{\"u}senkamp and A. Goldschmidt and G. Golup and J. Gonzalez and J. Goodman and D. G{\'o}ra and D. Grandmont and D. Grant and A. Gro{\ss} and C. Ha and A. Haj Ismail and P. Hallen and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Hanson and D. Heereman and D. Heinen and K. Helbing and R. Hellauer and S. Hickford and G. Hill and K. Hoffman and R. Hoffmann and A. Homeier and K. Hoshina and W. Huelsnitz and P. O. Hulth and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and A. Ishihara and E. Jacobi and J. Jacobsen and K. Jagielski and G. Japaridze and K. Jero and O. Jlelati and B. Kaminsky and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and J. Kelley and J. Kiryluk and J. Kl{\"a}s and S. Klein and J. K{\"o}hne and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. K{\"o}pke and C. Kopper and S. Kopper and D. Koskinen and M. Kowalski and M. Krasberg and K. Krings and G. Kroll and J. Kunnen and N. Kurahashi and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and H. Landsman and M. Larson and M. Lesiak-Bzdak and M. Leuermann and J. Leute and J. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and G. Maggi and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and H. Matis and F. McNally and K. Meagher and M. Merck and T. Meures and S. Miarecki and E. Middell and N. Milke and J. Miller and L. Mohrmann and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and R. Nahnhauer and U. Naumann and H. Niederhausen and S. Nowicki and D. Nygren and A. Obertacke and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and A. O'Murchadha and L. Paul and J. Pepper and C. P{\'e}rez de los Heros and C. Pfendner and D. Pieloth and E. Pinat and J. Posselt and P. Price and G. Przybylski and L. R{\"a}del and M. Rameez and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and R. Reimann and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and M. Richman and B. Riedel and J. P. Rodrigues and C. Rott and T. Ruhe and B. Ruzybayev and D. Ryckbosch and S. M. Saba and T. Salameh and H. Sander and M. Santander and S. Sarkar and K. Schatto and F. Scheriau and T. Schmidt and M. Schmitz and S. Schoenen and S. Sch{\"o}neberg and A. Sch{\"o}nwald and A. Schukraft and L. Schulte and O. Schulz and D. Seckel and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and R. Shanidze and C. Sheremata and M. Smith and D. Soldin and G. Spiczak and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and Alexander Stasik and T. Stezelberger and R. Stokstad and A. St{\"o}{\ss}l and E. Strahler and R. Str{\"o}m and G. Sullivan and H. Taavola and I. Taboada and A. Tamburro and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and G. Tesic and S. Tilav and P. A. Toale and S. Toscano and E. Unger and M. Usner and N. van Eijndhoven and A. Van Overloop and J. van Santen and M. Vehring and M. Voge and M. Vraeghe and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Wallraff and C. Weaver and M. Wellons and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and K. Wiebe and C. Wiebusch and D. Williams and H. Wissing and M. Wolf and T. R. Wood and K. Woschnagg and D. L. Xu and X. Xu and J. Y{\'a}{\~n}ez and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida and P. Zarzhitsky and J. Ziemann and S. Zierke and M. Zoll},
  journal={Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={342}
}
Introduction Neutrino observations are a unique probe of the universe’s highest-energy phenomena: Neutrinos are able to escape from dense astrophysical environments that photons cannot and are unambiguous tracers of cosmic ray acceleration. As protons and nuclei are accelerated, they interact with gas and background light near the source to produce subatomic particles such as charged pions and kaons, which then decay, emitting neutrinos. We report on results of an all-sky search for these… Expand
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