Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector

@article{Aartsen2013EvidenceFH,
  title={Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector},
  author={Mark G. Aartsen and R. U. Abbasi and Yasser Abdou and Markus Ackermann and J. H. Adams and Juan Antonio Aguilar and Markus Ahlers and David Altmann and Jan Auffenberg and Xinhua Bai and Mark Baker and Steven W. Barwick and V. Baum and Ryan Bay and James J. Beatty and Sabrina Bechet and Julia Becker Tjus and Kathrin Becker and Mohamed Lotfi Benabderrahmane and Segev BenZvi and Patrick Berghaus and David Berley and Elisa Bernardini and Anna Bernhard and Daniel Bertrand and David Z. Besson and Gary Binder and Daniel Bindig and Martin Bissok and Erik Blaufuss and Jan Blumenthal and David J. Boersma and Stephanie M. Bohaichuk and Christian Bohm and Debanjan Bose and Sebastian B{\"o}ser and Olga Botner and Lionel Brayeur and Hans-Peter Bretz and A. M. Brown and Ronald Bruijn and J{\"u}rgen Brunner and Michael Carson and James Casey and Martin Casier and Dmitry Chirkin and Asen Christov and Brian John Christy and Ken Clark and Fabian Clevermann and Stefan Coenders and S. D. Cohen and D. F. Cowen and A. H. Cruz Silva and Matthias Danninger and Jacob Daughhetee and J. C. Davis and Melanie Day and Cath{\'e}rine De Clercq and Sam De Ridder and Paolo Desiati and K. D. de Vries and M. de With and Tyce DeYoung and Juan Carlos D{\'i}az-V{\'e}lez and Matthew Dunkman and Ryan Eagan and Benjamin Eberhardt and Bj{\"o}rn Eichmann and Jonathan Eisch and R. W. Ellsworth and Sebastian Euler and Paul A. Evenson and Oladipo O. Fadiran and Ali R. Fazely and Anatoli Fedynitch and Jacob Feintzeig and Tom Feusels and Kirill Filimonov and Chad Finley and Tobias Fischer-Wasels and Samuel Flis and Anna Franckowiak and Katharina Frantzen and Tomasz Fuchs and Thomas K. Gaisser and J. Gallagher and Lisa Marie Gerhardt and Laura E. Gladstone and Thorsten Gl{\"u}senkamp and Azriel Goldschmidt and Geraldina Golup and J. G. Gonzalez and Jordan A. Goodman and Dariusz G{\'o}ra and Dylan T. Grandmont and Darren Grant and A. Gross and Chang Hyon Ha and Abd Al Karim Haj Ismail and Patrick Hallen and Allan Hallgren and Francis Halzen and Kael D. Hanson and David Heereman and Dirk Heinen and Klaus Helbing and Robert Eugene Hellauer and Stephanie Virginia Hickford and Gary C. Hill and K. D. Hoffman and Ruth Hoffmann and Andreas Homeier and Kotoyo Hoshina and Warren Huelsnitz and Per Olof Hulth and Klas Hultqvist and Shahid Hussain and Aya Ishihara and Emanuel Jacobi and Janet S. Jacobsen and Kai Jagielski and George S. Japaridze and Kyle Jero and Ola Jlelati and Basho Kaminsky and Alexander Kappes and Timo Karg and Albrecht Karle and John Lawrence Kelley and Joanna Kiryluk and J. Kl{\"a}s and Spencer R. Klein and Jan-Hendrik K{\"o}hne and Georges Kohnen and Hermann Kolanoski and Lutz K{\"o}pke and Claudio Kopper and Sandro Kopper and D. Jason Koskinen and Marek Kowalski and Mark Krasberg and Kai Michael Krings and G{\"o}sta Kroll and Jan Kunnen and Naoko Kurahashi and Takao Kuwabara and Mathieu L. M. Labare and Hagar Landsman and Michael James Larson and Mariola Lesiak-Bzdak and Martin Leuermann and Julia Leute and Jan D. L{\"u}nemann and J. Madsen and Giuliano Maggi and Reina Maruyama and Keiichi Mase and Howard S. Matis and Frank McNally and Kevin J. Meagher and Martin Merck and Thomas Meures and Sandra Miarecki and Eike Middell and Natalie Milke and J. Miller and Lars Mohrmann and Teresa Montaruli and Robert Morse and Rolf Nahnhauer and Uwe Naumann and Hans Niederhausen and Sarah C. Nowicki and David R. Nygren and Anna Obertacke and Sirin Odrowski and Alexander R. Olivas and Aongus O'Murchadha and Larissa Paul and Joshua A. Pepper and Carlos P{\'e}rez de los Heros and Carl Pfendner and Damian Pieloth and Elisa Pinat and Jonas Posselt and P. Buford Price and Gerald T. Przybylski and Leif R{\"a}del and M. Rameez and Katherine Rawlins and Peter Christian Redl and Ren{\'e} Reimann and Elisa Resconi and Wolfgang Rhode and Mathieu Ribordy and Michael Richman and Benedikt Riedel and Jo{\~a}o Paulo Rodrigues and Carsten Rott and Tim Ruhe and Bakhtiyar Ruzybayev and Dirk Ryckbosch and Sabine M. Saba and T. Salameh and Heinz Georg Sander and Marcos Santander and Subir Sarkar and Kai Schatto and Florian Scheriau and Timothy W. Schmidt and Martin Schmitz and Sebastian Schoenen and Sebastian Sch{\"o}neberg and Arne Sch{\"o}nwald and Anne Schukraft and Lukas Schulte and O. Schulz and David Seckel and Yolanda Sestayo and Surujhdeo Seunarine and Rezo Shanidze and Chris Sheremata and M. W. E. Smith and Dennis Soldin and G. M. Spiczak and Christian Spiering and Michael Stamatikos and Todor Stanev and Alexander Stasik and Thorsten Stezelberger and Robert G. Stokstad and Achim St{\"o}{\ss}l and Erik A. Strahler and Rickard Str{\"o}m and Gregory W. Sullivan and Henric Taavola and Ignacio J. Taboada and Alessio Tamburro and Andreas Tepe and Samvel Ter-Antonyan and Gordana Tesic and Serap Tilav and Patrick A. Toale and Simona Toscano and Elisabeth Unger and Marcel Usner and Nick van Eijndhoven and A. Van Overloop and Jakob van Santen and Markus Vehring and Markus Voge and Matthias Vraeghe and Christian Walck and Tilo Waldenmaier and Marius Wallraff and C. Weaver and Mark Wellons and C. Wendt and Stefan Westerhoff and Nathan Whitehorn and Klaus Wiebe and Christopher Wiebusch and D. R. W. Williams and Henrike Wissing and Martin Wolf and Terri R. Wood and Kurt Woschnagg and D. L. Xu and X. Xu and Juan Pablo Y{\'a}{\~n}ez and Gaurang B. Yodh and Shigeru Yoshida and Pavel Zarzhitsky and Jan Ziemann and Simon Zierke and Marcel Zoll},
  journal={Science},
  year={2013},
  volume={342}
}
Introduction Neutrino observations are a unique probe of the universe’s highest-energy phenomena: Neutrinos are able to escape from dense astrophysical environments that photons cannot and are unambiguous tracers of cosmic ray acceleration. As protons and nuclei are accelerated, they interact with gas and background light near the source to produce subatomic particles such as charged pions and kaons, which then decay, emitting neutrinos. We report on results of an all-sky search for these… 

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