Evidence for Great Holocene Earthquakes Along the Outer Coast of Washington State

@article{Atwater1987EvidenceFG,
  title={Evidence for Great Holocene Earthquakes Along the Outer Coast of Washington State},
  author={Brian F. Atwater},
  journal={Science},
  year={1987},
  volume={236},
  pages={942 - 944}
}
Intertidal mud has buried extensive, well-vegetated lowlands in westernmost Washington at least six times in the past 7000 years. Each burial was probably occasioned by rapid tectonic subsidence in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 meters. Anomalous sheets of sand atop at least three of the buried lowlands suggest that tsunamis resulted from the same events that caused the subsidence. These events may have been great earthquakes from the subduction zone between the Juan de Fuca and North America plates. 

Topics from this paper

Earthquake-induced subsidence and burial of late holocene archaeological sites, northern Oregon coast
Fire earths associated with prehistoric Native american occuaption lie within the youngest buried lowland soil of the estuary along the salmon and Nehalem rivers on the northern Oregon coast. ThisExpand
Detection of Large Prehistoric Earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest by Microfossil Analysis
Geologic and palynological evidence for rapid sea level change ∼3400 and ∼2000 carbon-14 years ago (3600 and 1900 calendar years ago) has been found at sites up to 110 kilometers apart inExpand
Strain Measurements and the Potential for a Great Subduction Earthquake Off the Coast of Washington
Geodetic measurements of deformation in northwestern Washington indicate that strain is accumulating at a rate close to that predicted by a model of the Cascadia subduction zone in which the plateExpand
Possible tsunami deposits from the 1855 earthquake, North Island, New Zealand
Abstract A series of three fining-upward sequences from deposits in the Okourewa Stream bank on the south coast of the North Island, New Zealand, investigated by grain-size, diatom, radiocarbon,Expand
A Holocene tsunami deposit in eastern Scotland
A thin, regionally extensive, laterally persistent sand layer identified within the Holocene coastal sequences of eastern Scotland, dated to 7000 years BP, is suggested to be a tsunami deposit. TheExpand
Paleoearthquakes in the Puget Sound Region Recorded in Sediments from Lake Washington, U.S.A
TLDR
Downcore susceptibility patterns suggest that near-simultaneous slumping occurred in at least three separate locations, two of which now contain submerged forests. Expand
Tsunami risk in northwestern Europe: a Holocene example
A thin, regionally extensive, laterally persistent sand layer is present within the Holocene coastal sequences of eastern Scotland, dated to 7000 yr BP. It is proposed that this deposit was caused byExpand
The Storegga Slides: Evidence from eastern Scotland for a possible tsunami
Abstract The Second Storegga Slide on the continental slope off western Norway has been dated at between 8000 and 5000 yrs B.P. A prominent sand layer in Flandrian (Holocene) deposits along the coastExpand
Evidence for a Large Earthquake and Tsunami 100-400 Years Ago on Western Vancouver Island, British Columbia
Abstract A peaty marsh soil is sharply overlain by a sand sheet and intertidal mud at tidal marshes near Tofino and Ucluelet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Foraminifera and vascular plantExpand
A Tsunami About 1000 Years Ago in Puget Sound, Washington
TLDR
These findings show that a tsunami was generated in Puget Sound, and they tend to confirm that a large shallow earthquake occurred in the Seattle area about 1000 years ago. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 31 REFERENCES
Mechanism of the Chilean Earthquakes of May 21 and 22, 1960
The Chilean earthquake sequence of May 21–22, 1960, was accompanied by linear zones of tectonic warping, including both uplift and subsidence relative to sea level. The region involved is more thanExpand
Active deformation of the Pacific Northwest Continental Margin
Tilted and uplifted marine terraces in southern Oregon show progressive landward tilting of the coastal ranges at about 5–16 × 10−8 rad. yr−1 for the last 0.25 m.y. Tide gauges in Washington andExpand
Development of a New England Salt Marsh
The salt marsh at Barnstable, Massachusetts, occupies an embayment into which it has spread during the past 4,000 years. It exhibits all stages of development from the seeding of bare sand flatsExpand
Late-Holocene sea-level record in a core from the Puget Lowland
Abstract Diatoms and lithological facies of an 8.45-m core collected from Shine swamp (47°52′20″N lat, 122°41′45″W long; about 2 m above the mean tide level) in the northern Puget Lowland reveal aExpand
Discrimination between Subtidal and Intertidal Facies in Pleistocene Deposits, Willapa Bay, Washington
ABSTRACT Sea cliffs on the north, west, and south sides of Willapa Bay, Washington, present excellent exposures of Pleistocene estuary deposits. Analysis of these deposits and comparison of them withExpand
Source characteristics of hypothetical subduction earthquakes in the northwestern United States
Historic earthquake sequences on subduction zones that are similar to the Cascadia subduction zone are used to hypothesize the nature of shallow subduction earthquakes that might occur in theExpand
Alaskan Earthquake of 1964 and Chilean Earthquake of 1960: Implications for Arc Tectonics
The 1964 Alaskan earthquake (Ms ≈ 8.4) involved a segment of the eastern Aleutian arc 800 gm long; the 1960 Chilean earthquake sequence (Ms ≈ 8.5) affected roughly 100 km of the southern Peru-ChileExpand
Earthquake Hazards on the Cascadia Subduction Zone
TLDR
If large subduction earthquakes occur in the Pacific Northwest, relatively strong shaking can be expected over a large region, and such earthquakes may also be accompanied by large local tsunamis. Expand
Quat. Res. (NY)
  • Quat. Res. (NY)
  • 1987
Active Tectonics
  • Active Tectonics
  • 1986
...
1
2
3
4
...