Evidence-based resistance training recommendations

  title={Evidence-based resistance training recommendations},
  author={James Peter Fisher and James Steele and Stewart Bruce-Low and Dave Smith},
  journal={Medicina Sportiva},
Resistance training produces an array of health benefits, as well as the potential to promote muscular adaptations of strength, size, power and endurance. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) regularly publish a position stand making recommendations for optimal achievement of the desired training goals. However, the most recent position stand (as well as previous ones) has come under heavy criticism for misrepresentation of research, lack of evidence and author bias. Therefore this… 

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Evidence supports that persons should train to the highest intensity of effort, thus recruiting as many motor units and muscle fibres as possible, self-selecting a load and repetition range, and performing single sets for each exercise, and evidence suggests that short periods of detraining in trained persons might stimulate greater hypertrophy upon return to training.
The Minimum Effective Training Dose Required to Increase 1RM Strength in Resistance-Trained Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Performing a single set of 6–12 repetitions with loads ranging from approximately 70–85% 1RM 2–3 times per week with high intensity of effort for 8–12 weeks can produce suboptimal, yet significant increases in SQ and BP 1RM strength in resistance-trained men.
Critical Commentary on the Stimulus for Muscle Hypertrophy in Experienced Trainees
Researchers have expressed concern recently for standardization of resistance training protocols so that valid comparisons of different training variables such as muscular fatigue, time under
High- and Low-Load Resistance Training: Interpretation and Practical Application of Current Research Findings
It is the opinion is that the practical implications of being able to self-select external load include reducing the need for specific facility memberships, motivating older persons or those who might be less confident using heavy loads, and allowing people to undertake home- or field-based resistance training intervention strategies that might ultimately improve exercise adherence.
Manipulation of resistance training variables for strength increases in young adults
The studies as a collective demonstrate the relative simplicity that can be used to attain considerable strength improvements by the use of uncomplicated resistance training.
Decreases in the number of repetitions between sets is indicative of concentric failure in strength training with trained men
The practice of strength training (ST) promotes several benefits such as increased strength, endurance, muscle strength, hypertrophy, as well as changes in body composition. Concentric failure
Muscular Strength, Power, and Endurance Adaptations after Two Different University Fitness Classes
Activity classes provide college students with an option for increasing their weekly PA and help maintain body composition and there was a significant main effect of time for push-ups and squats, although no significant differences were found between them.
Single Versus Two Sets of Resistance Training on Muscular Endurance, Strength and Fat Percentages Among Recreationally Trained Men
In conclusion, single set had been found to produce similar effects as two sets on muscular strength, upper body muscular endurance and fat percentages among recreationally trained men.
The Effects of Breakdown Set Resistance Training on Muscular Performance and Body Composition in Young Men and Women
The present study supports previous research that the use of advanced training techniques stimulates no greater muscular adaptations when compared with performing more simplified RT protocols to momentary muscular failure.


American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.
In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary and emphasis should be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body.
The application of training to failure in periodized multiple-set resistance exercise programs.
  • J. Willardson
  • Medicine
    Journal of strength and conditioning research
  • 2007
What is currently known concerning the application of training to failure is discussed and the goals of the lifter should guide the decision-making process on this issue are guided.
The Effects of Manual Resistance Training on Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance
The improvements in muscular strength and muscular endurance after a 14-week MRT program in the present study were similar to those produced by a WRT program, and well-designed MRT exercises seem to be effective for improving muscular fitness.
The influence of direct supervision of resistance training on strength performance.
Directly supervised, heavy-resistance training in moderately trained men resulted in a greater rate of training load increase and magnitude which resulted in greater maximal strength gains compared with unsupervised training.
Skeletal muscle fiber type, resistance training, and strength-related performance.
It is concluded that strength improvement of up to 40% does not produce a strength-related performance deficit, when training and testing procedures are identical, yet these data do not rule out the potential of astrength-related repetition performance deficit.
Training Adaptations Associated With an 8-Week Instability Resistance Training Program With Recreationally Active Individuals
It appears that instability resistance training, which reportedly uses lower forces, can increase strength and balance in previously untrained young individuals similar to training with more stable machines employing heavier loads.
Strength/Endurance Effects From Three Resistance Training Protocols With Women
Fifty college women were randomly assigned to one of three resistance training protocols that employed progressive resistance with high resistance/low repetitions (HRLR), medium resistance/medium
Fatigue is not a necessary stimulus for strength gains during resistance training
Fatigue and metabolite accumulation do not appear to be critical stimuli for strength gain, and resistance training can be effective without the severe discomfort and acute physical effort associated with fatiguing contractions.
These meta-analyses demonstrate that the effort-to-benefit ratio is different for untrained, recreationally trained, and athlete populations; thus, emphasizing the necessity of appropriate exercise prescription to optimize training effect.
Manipulating Resistance Training Program Variables to Optimize Maximum Strength in Men: A Review
Maximum strength is the capacity to generate force within an isometric contraction. It is a valuable attribute to most athletes because it acts as a general base that supports specific training in