Evidence-based medicine, heterogeneity of treatment effects, and the trouble with averages.

@article{Kravitz2004EvidencebasedMH,
  title={Evidence-based medicine, heterogeneity of treatment effects, and the trouble with averages.},
  author={Richard L. Kravitz and Naihua Duan and Joel Tupper Braslow},
  journal={The Milbank quarterly},
  year={2004},
  volume={82 4},
  pages={661-87}
}
Evidence-based medicine is the application of scientific evidence to clinical practice. This article discusses the difficulties of applying global evidence ("average effects" measured as population means) to local problems (individual patients or groups who might depart from the population average). It argues that the benefit or harm of most treatments in clinical trials can be misleading and fail to reveal the potentially complex mixture of substantial benefits for some, little benefit for… CONTINUE READING
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