Evidence and controversies on the role of XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome

  title={Evidence and controversies on the role of XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome},
  author={Luis Men{\'e}ndez-Arias},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
The recent discovery of xenotropic murine leukaemia virus‐related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer tissues and in the blood of individuals suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome has attracted considerable interest. However, the relevance and significance of XMRV to human disease remain unclear, since the association has not been confirmed in other studies. XMRV is the first gammaretrovirus to be found in humans. XMRV and murine leukaemia viruses share similar structures and genomic organisation… 

XMRV: Emerging Human Infection or False Alarm

The relationship of XMRV with these diseases became doubtful due to evidence of laboratory and reagent contamination, potentially escaped laboratory viruses and plasmids, and nonreproducibility of the findings.

Identification of XMRV Infection-Associated microRNAs in Four Cell Types in Culture

It is clearly demonstrates that cellular microRNAs are expressed during XMRV infection of human cells and this is the first report demonstrating the regulation of miR193a-3p and miRPlus-E1245 during X MRV infection in four different human cell types.

Prevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infection in different risk populations in Spain.

In summary, no evidence of XMRV infection was found in populations with retroviral and viral hepatitis infections in Spain or in patients with autoimmune diseases, chronic fatigue syndrome-fibromyalgia, prostate cancer, or healthy blood donors.

Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus is not found in peripheral blood cells from treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.

  • F. MaggiD. Focosi M. Pistello
  • Biology, Medicine
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2012
Using nested PCR and single-step TaqMan real-time PCR, both designed on the XMRV gag gene, it is found that no positive samples were found and these findings add to the growing amount of scepticism regarding X MRV.

No Detection of XMRV in Blood Samples and Tissue Sections from Prostate Cancer Patients in Northern Europe

It is found that there is no conclusive evidence of XMRV protein expression in PCA, breast cancer and colon cancer tissue sections tested by IHC staining.

Absence of Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus in Italian Patients Affected by Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, or Rheumatoid Arthritis

The results add to the ever-growing number of surveys reporting the absence of XMRV in chronic fatigue syndrome patients and suggest that the virus is also absent in fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis.

Intrinsic DNA synthesis fidelity of xenotropic murine leukemia virus‐related virus reverse transcriptase

Forward mutation assays revealed that XMRV and MoMLV RTs had similar accuracy of DNA‐dependent DNA synthesis, but were > 13 times more faithful than the HIV‐1BH10 enzyme.

Identification of Pathogen Signatures in Prostate Cancer Using RNA-seq

This analysis provides evidence of Propionibacterium acnes infections in human prostate tumors, and noted differences in viral infections across ethnicity remain to be confirmed with other large prostate cancer data sets.

Development of a new serological technique - Chronic fatigue syndrome and XMRV

Findings provided further evidence that Xenotropic Murine Leukemia related virus, XMRV could infect humans.

Utilization of Replication-Competent XMRV Reporter-Viruses Reveals Severe Viral Restriction in Primary Human Cells

Although XMRV efficiently replicated in some human cell lines, all tested primary cells were largely refractory to X MRV infection and did not support viral spread, providing further evidence that XMRVs is not a human pathogen.



The human retrovirus XMRV in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome

Emerging science surrounding XMRV is contributing to the authors' knowledge of retroviral infections while focusing intense interest on two major human diseases: prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome.

Failure to Detect the Novel Retrovirus XMRV in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Although it was reported that 68 of 101 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in the US were infected with a novel gamma retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a virus previously linked to prostate cancer, no evidence that XMRV is associated with CFS in the UK is found.

XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors

Experimental evidence is provided that XMRV is indeed a gammaretrovirus with protein composition and particle ultrastructure highly similar to Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV), another gammeretrovirus, and a common polymorphism in the RNASEL gene is found, unlike results previously reported.

Raltegravir Is a Potent Inhibitor of XMRV, a Virus Implicated in Prostate Cancer and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

The retroviral integrase inhibitor, raltegravir, was potent and selective against XMRV at submicromolar concentrations, in MCF-7 and LNCaP cells, a breast cancer and prostate cancer cell line, respectively.

Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus(XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients

The results indicate a much lower prevalence (or even complete absence) of XMRV in prostate tumor patients in Germany, and one possible reason for this could be a geographically restricted incidence of X MRV infections.

Apobec 3G Efficiently Reduces Infectivity of the Human Exogenous Gammaretrovirus XMRV

It is demonstrated that XMRV is resistant to human Apobec 3B, 3C and 3F, while being highly susceptible to the human A3G protein, a factor which is known to confer antiviral activity against most retroviruses.

Detection of a gammaretrovirus, XMRV, in the human population: Open questions and implications for xenotransplantation

XMRV (xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus) is a gammaretrovirus that has been detected in human patients with prostate carcinoma, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and also in a small

Prevalence of human gammaretrovirus XMRV in sporadic prostate cancer.

  • N. FischerO. Hellwinkel T. Schlomm
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • 2008

Evaluation of Cellular Determinants Required for In Vitro Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus Entry into Human Prostate Cancer and Noncancerous Cells

It is learned that XMRV was indeed capable of infecting cells that did not necessarily express Xpr1, such as those of the prostatic epithelial and smooth muscle origins, and certain amino acid residues located within the predicted extracellular loop are required for efficientXMRV entry.

Susceptibility of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) to retroviral restriction factors

This work found that both human APOBEC3 and tetherin proteins are able to block XMRV replication, and that the virus was inhibited by factors from nonhuman species, including mouse Apobec3, tetherin, and Fv1 proteins.