Techniques are described for the isolation of plastid thylakoid membranes from light-grown and dark-grown cells of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris, and from mutants affecting plastid development. These membranes, which have minimal contamination with other cell fractions, are localized in sucrose gradients by using the thylakoid membrane sulfolipid as a specific marker. The plastid thylakoid membrane polypeptides isolated from these membranes were separated on SDS polyacrylamide gels and yielded patterns containing 30-40 polypeptides. Light-grown strain Z gave patterns identical with bacillaris. Since the plastid thylakoid polypeptide patterns obtained from dark-grown wild-type cells and from a bleached mutant W3BUL in which plastid DNA is undetectable are identical, it appears that the proplastid thylakoid polypeptides of wild-type cannot be coded in plastid DNA and are probably coded in nuclear DNA. The plastid thylakoid polypeptide patterns obtained from various dark-grown mutants, making large but abnormal chloroplasts, show a correlation between the amount of chlorophyll formed and the amount of a plastid thylakoid polypeptide thought to be associated wtth one of the pigment-protein light-harvesting complexes. Treatment with SAN 9789 (4-chloro-5-(methylamino)-2(alpha, alpha, alpha,-trifluoro-m-tolyl)-3-(2H(pyridazinone) known to block carotenoid synthesis at the level of phytoene, causes a progressive loss of all plastid thylakoid polypeptides during growth in darkness and results in the establishment of a new, lowere steady-state level of sulfolipid. At least ten of the plastid thylakoid polypeptides become labeled when isolated chloroplasts are supplied with radioactive amono acids; of these six are undectable in W3BUL and are, therefore, candidates for coding by plastid DNA.