OBJECTIVE To study the time course of oscillatory EEG activity and corticospinal excitability of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex (iM1) during self-paced phasic extension movements of fingers II-V. METHODS We designed an experiment in which cortical activation, measured by spectral-power analysis of 28-channel EEG, and cortical excitability, measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), were assessed during phasic self-paced extensions of the right fingers II-V in 28 right-handed subjects. TMS was delivered to iM1 0-1500 ms after movement onset. RESULTS Ipsilateral event-related desynchronization (ERD) during finger movement was paralleled by increased cortical excitability of iM1 from 0-200 ms after movement onset and by increased intracortical facilitation (ICF) without changes in intracortical inhibition (ICI) or peripheral measures (F waves). TMS during periods of post-movement event-related synchronization (ERS) revealed no significant changes in cortical excitability in iM1. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that motor cortical ERD ipsilateral to the movement is associated with increased corticospinal excitability, while ERS is coupled with its removal. These data are compatible with the concept that iM1 contributes actively to motor control. No evidence for inhibitory modulation of iM1 was detected in association with self-paced phasic finger movements. SIGNIFICANCE Understanding the physiological role of iM1 in motor control.