Evaluative Learning with “Subliminally” Presented Stimuli

  title={Evaluative Learning with “Subliminally” Presented Stimuli},
  author={Jan De Houwer and Hilde Hendrickx and Frank Baeyens},
  journal={Consciousness and Cognition},
Evaluative learning refers to the change in the affective evaluation of a previously neutral stimulus (NS) that occurs after the stimulus has been associated with a second, positive or negative, affective stimulus (AS). Four experiments are reported in which the AS was presented very briefly. Significant evaluative learning was observed in participants who did not notice the presentation of the affective stimuli (ASi) (Experiment 2) or could not discriminate between the briefly presented… 

When All Is Revealed: A Dissociation between Evaluative Learning and Contingency Awareness

It is argued that an effect in the opposite direction to that normally observed in evaluative learning emerged in participants aware of the stimulus contingencies pose serious problems for the contention that awareness is necessary for evaluatives learning.

Evaluative conditioning in humans: a meta-analysis.

Among a range of other findings, EC effects were stronger for high than for low contingency awareness, for supraliminal than for subliminal US presentation, for postacquisition than for postextinction effects, and for self-report than for implicit measures.

Reactance in affective‐evaluative learning: Outside of conscious control?

Recent studies have shown that the basic evaluative conditioning (EC) effect (originally neutral stimuli acquiring an affective value congruent with the valence of the affective stimulus they were

Latent inhibition in human affective learning.

It is revealed that it is possible to modify the affective value of a previously neutral non-sense shape by pairing it with a liked or disliked unconditioned stimulus, and that latent inhibition affects affective conditioning.

Subliminal influence on preferences? A test of evaluative conditioning for brief visual conditioned stimuli using auditory unconditioned stimuli

A set of three studies experimentally manipulate contingency awareness by presenting the CSs very briefly, thereby rendering it unlikely to be processed consciously, and consistently finds an EC effect for briefly presented CSs.

Aware and (dis)liking: item-based analyses reveal that valence acquisition via evaluative conditioning emerges only when there is contingency awareness.

It is found that EC emerged on contingency aware CSs only, and this pattern supports the idea that awareness of the CS-US associations may be required for valence acquisition via EC.

Does Evaluative Conditioning Depend on Awareness? Evidence From a Continuous Flash Suppression Paradigm

This work investigated evaluative conditioning (EC) without awareness with an approach that conceptually provides optimal conditions for unaware learning - the Continuous Flash Suppression paradigm (CFS).



Human evaluative conditioning: Order of stimulus presentation

  • M. HammerlH. Grabitz
  • Psychology
    Integrative physiological and behavioral science : the official journal of the Pavlovian Society
  • 1993
There was a statistically significant difference inevaluative ratings showing a change of the evaluative tone of the previously neutral stimuli in a positive direction only after forward conditioning, which challenges the assumption of Martin and Levey (1987) that evaluatives conditioning is different from human classical conditioning.

Verbal evaluative conditioning with undetected US presentations.

Classical conditioning of human 'evaluative' responses.

Contingency awareness in evaluative conditioning: A case for unaware affective-evaluative learning

Abstract According to Martin and Levey (1987) evaluative conditioning is different from signal learning, i.e. the acquisition of knowledge about predictive relations between environmental events. The

The role of CS-US contingency in human evaluative conditioning.