Enhancement of hepatocarcinogenesis by kojic acid in rat two-stage models after initiation with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine or N-diethylnitrosamine.
Data supporting the use of transgenic lines to identify carcinogens and noncarcinogens are thus far based on a limited number of chemicals for which there are also long-term bioassay results in rats and/or mice. Six chemicals have been tested in the heterozygous p53-deficient mice and 13 in the Tg.AC line. The results show that the p53def responds rapidly to mutagenic carcinogens and the Tg.AC responds rapidly to both mutagenic and nonmutagenic carcinogens. Neither transgenic line responded to the noncarcinogens that were tested. The p53def line failed to respond to two nonmutagenic carcinogens (N-methyloacrylamide and reserpine), the Tg.AC line failed to respond to ethyl acrylate, a nonmutagenic chemical that induced tumors of the forestomach when administered by gavage, and to triethanolamine that caused an increase in hepatocellular tumors in B6C3F1 mice via skin painting. Both of the latter chemicals are examples of highly specific responses related to either route of administration or to strain susceptibility. Further efforts to evaluate the range of chemicals to which these transgenic lines respond are currently in progress.