The requisite for a rigorous preoperative understanding of vascular branching continues to grow in parallel with the implementation of laparoscopic surgery. Three-dimensional (3D)-computed tomography (CT) angiography is a less-invasive modality than traditional angiographic examination. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate branching patterns of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). In the present study, 536 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative 3D-CT angiography from April 2012 to March 2014 were prospectively enrolled. The branching pattern of the right colic artery (RCA) and the intersectional patterns of the RCA, ileocolic artery (ICA), and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) were evaluated. The RCA existed in only 179 cases (33.4 %); the remaining 357 patients (66.6 %) lacked evidence of the RCA. The ICA was detected in all cases. The RCA ran ventral to the SMV in the majority of cases (89.4 %). Conversely, the ICA ran ventral to the SMV in only half of the cases (50.6 %). When the RCA was observed to pass dorsal to the SMV, the ICA also ran dorsal to SMV in all cases. 3D-CT angiography can aid surgeons in identifying and understanding the anatomical vascular variations and intersectional patterns of the RCA, ICA, and SMV. Developing awareness of these variations can aid in the prevention of unexpected vascular injury during laparoscopic right-sided colon surgery.