Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide

  title={Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of gallium arsenide},
  author={Ernst M. Bomhard and H. P. Gelbke and Hermann Dr Schenk and Gary M Williams and Samuel M. Cohen},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={436 - 466}
Abstract Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is an important semiconductor material. In 2-year inhalation studies, GaAs increased the incidence of lung tumors in female rats, but not in male rats or male and female mice. Alveolar proteinosis followed by chronic active inflammation was the predominant non-neoplastic pulmonary findings. IARC classified GaAs as carcinogenic to humans (group 1) based on the assumption that As and Ga ions are bioavailable. The European Chemical Agency Risk Assessment Committee… 
Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic
An assessment of the mode of action (MOA) of iAs’s carcinogenicity based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency/International Programme on Chemical Safety (USEPA/IPCS) framework, focusing primarily on bladder cancer, implies a non-linear, threshold dose-response relationship for both non-cancer and cancer end points.
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  • E. Bomhard
  • Medicine, Chemistry
    Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
  • 2020
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A high sensitivity of the five routinely used in vivo genotoxicity assays for prediction of human carcinogens is confirmed, which can be further increased by combining assays.
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Interaction, transformation and toxicity assessment of particles and additives used in the semiconducting industry.
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Acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna of colloidal silica nanoparticles in a chemical mechanical planarization slurry after polishing a gallium arsenide wafer
Abstract Semiconductor chip manufacturers use slurries of metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) as abrasives in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processes on wafers containing films of III/V
Low level determination of gallium isotopes by ICP-QQQ.
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  • Materials Science, Medicine
    Journal of analytical atomic spectrometry
  • 2018
Analysis of Ga at m/z 69 was severely affected by doubly charged Ba across all gas modes except +17 mass-shift NH3 gas mode, but despite Ga being only 1-2% reactive at the 69-86 mass shift, the doubly-charged interference was not mass-shifted and detection limits of < 1 ng/l and precise and accurate quantification of two water reference materials and nine natural water samples were achievable for this analysis mode.


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Alterations in some hepatic biochemical variables following repeated gallium arsenide administration in rats
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The data suggest that As2O3 induced an acute fibrogenic response that significantly elevated lung dry weight as well as protein, DNA, and 4-HP content and that this response was associated with the pulmonary retention of gallium particulates.
Testicular toxicity evaluation of arsenic-containing binary compound semiconductors, gallium arsenide and indium arsenide, in hamsters.
Gallium may play a main role in the testicular toxicity of GaAs in hamsters, as serum molar concentration of gallium was 32-times higher than that of arsenic in GaAs-treated hamsters.
Comparative Pulmonary Toxicities and Carcinogenicities of Chronically Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Carban Black in F344 Rats
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Pulmonary clearance and toxicity of respirable gallium arsenide particulates intratracheally instilled into rats.
Exposure to respirable GaAs particulates is a potential health hazard in the semiconductor industry and decreasing the particle mean count and mean volume diameter increased the in vivo dissolution rate of GaAs, increased the severity of pulmonary lesions previously associated with GaAs exposure, and resulted in unique pathological sequelae in affected lung tissue.
Evidence for arsenic as the immunosuppressive component of gallium arsenide.
The data indicate that the arsenic component of GaAs is the major contributor to the GaAs-induced immunosuppression and that this effect occurs within the first 36 hr of the 5-day culture period in a concentration-dependent manner.
Changes in certain hematological and physiological variables following single gallium arsenide exposure in rats
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Lung tumor induction upon long-term low-level inhalation of crystalline silica.
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