Evaluation of subsampling and fixation procedures used for counting rumen protozoa

  title={Evaluation of subsampling and fixation procedures used for counting rumen protozoa},
  author={Burk A. Dehority},
  journal={Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
  pages={182 - 185}
  • B. A. Dehority
  • Published 1 July 1984
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Total numbers of protozoa can be significantly lower in rumen fluid than in whole rumen contents, depending on the time of sampling and the procedure used to separate the fluid and solid fractions. Moreover, generic distribution in rumen fluid was significantly affected in all cases tested. The percentage of Entodinium spp. increased, whereas percentages of Diplodinium spp. and Ophryoscolex spp. decreased. Microscopic observation of fresh and fixed rumen contents did not indicate any marked… 

Quantitative and differential analysis of ciliate protozoa in rumen content samples filtered before and after fixation

Post-fixation straining is the recommended technique to analyze rumen protozoa for the estimation of protozoal density in cattle.

Sequestration, migration and lysis of protozoa in the rumen

A container with nylon and stainless steel mesh screens was used to investigate the phenomena of sequestration, migration and lysis of protozoa in the rumen of steers to determine the effects of feed restriction on concentrations of Ophryoscolecidae.

Rumen Ciliate Protozoa of the Blue Duiker (Cephalophus monticola), with Observations on Morphological Variation Lines Within the Species Entodinium dubardi

  • B. A. Dehority
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology
  • 1994
The present data were used to evaluate and discuss the concept of variation lines within E. dubardi, which appeared to be on variation lines leading toward 7–10 other non‐caudate species of Entodinium.

Development of an assay to quantify rumen ciliate protozoal biomass in cows using real-time PCR.

A real-time PCR assay targeting the gene encoding 18S rDNA to quantify the amount of protozoal biomass in ruminal fluid and duodenal digesta and verified constant recovery of background rDNA in duodanal samples regardless of the ratio of target:nontarget rDNA.

Protozoários ruminais de novilhos de corte criados em pastagem tropical durante o período seco

The concentration average of the total and of small and medium protozoa declined significantly over the course of the dry season; however, alterations in large protozOA concentrations were not detected over the three periods evaluated.

Effects of Isotricha, Dasytricha, Entodinium, and total fauna on ruminal fermentation and duodenal flow in wethers fed different diets.

Entodinium was the most detrimental of ciliate protozoa species concerning protein nutrition of the host ruminant in wethers containing total fauna.

Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population

The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv.

Improved in vitro procedure for maintaining stock cultures of three genera of rumen protozoa.

Although bacterial concentrations decreased when cultures were not fed for 2 d (over the weekend), they recovered quickly with subsequent daily feedings, and addition of streptomycin to the media had little effect on maintaining bacterial concentrations in all cultures except Entodinium caudatum, in which the overall mean concentration was greater.

Modeling the distribution of ciliate protozoa in the reticulo-rumen using linear programming.

The results from the model application using the contrasting diets of increased forage content versus increased starch content indicate that the majority of rumen protozoa are found in the attached phase, either attached to feed particles or sequestered on the rumen wall, which indicates that the attached protozoal population is a significant component of the total rumen Protozoal community.



Enumeration of rumen micro-organisms.

  • A. Warner
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of general microbiology
  • 1962
Techniques are described for counting and differentiating the rumen microbial population, and the importance of differential as opposed to total counts is emphasized.

Maintenance of a certain rumen protozoal population in a continuous in vitro fermentation system

Factors suggest that sequestration of the protozoa among particulate digesta is an important factor in maintaining the concentration of protzoa.

The development and testing of a method of counting rumen ciliate protozoa.

Two counting-chambers, one based on the Sedgwick-Rafter cell, other on the MacMaster eelworm-counting cell, were constructed and tested and the counting technique adopted was found to be reliable; its accuracy depends upon the number of organisms counted.

Sequestration of Holotrich Protozoa in the Reticulo-Rumen of Cattle

These findings suggest that holotrichs would usually sequester on the reticulum wall and migrate into the rumen only for a few hours after feeding, and that this mode of behavior would be essential for holot richs to maintain their population within theRumen of cattle.

Variation in colony counts of total viable anaerobic rumen bacteria as influenced by media and cultural methods

Volume and type of medium, carbohydrate concentration, carbohydrate ratios, and inoculum level were investigated as possible factors influencing total colony counts of anaerobic rumen bacteria

Densities of ruminal protozoa of sheep established under different dietary conditions.

It is suggested that four species belonging to Entodinium, the genus hitherto not dealt with specifically, have different feeding habits.

Rumen Protozoal Degradation of Structurally Intact Forage Tissues

It is shown that the tissues degraded in orchardgrass consisted of large amounts of mesophyll and portions of the parenchyma bundle sheath and epidermis; no tissue loss due to the protozoa was observed in bermudagrass, and the relationship of these observations to forage digestion is discussed.

The Rumen Ciliate Epidinium in Primary Degradation of Plant Tissues

  • T. Bauchop
  • Biology, Medicine
    Applied and environmental microbiology
  • 1979
Within 2 h there was extensive degradation of thin-walled tissues, as indicated by the amount of exposed vascular cylinder, which is explained by direct ingestion of tissues by the protozoa on the plant fragments.

Ruminal flora studies in the sheep. IX. The effect of pH on the ciliate population of the rumen in vivo

It was concluded that the minimum pH within the rumen is an important factor controlling rumen protozoal concentrations in the sheep, and the need for cognizance of this phenomenon in studies of rumen Protozoa is stressed.

Effect of energy concentration and source of nitrogen on numbers and types of rumen protozoa.

Two rumen-fistulated Holstein heifers were fed three protein-free semipurified diets that contained either urea or soybean meal as the nitrogen source, and there were larger populations of Dasytricha and Isotricha when the diet contained soybean Meal, and larger population of Charon, Entodinium, and total protozoa when the diets contained urea.