Evaluation of renal impairment in dogs after envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus).


Envenomation by the common European adder (Vipera berus berus) causes clinical renal injury in dogs. In this study, serum concentrations of albumin, creatinine, total protein and urea were measured in 32 dogs bitten by adders. Urinary creatinine, protein, and retinol binding protein 4 concentrations, and the activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.09.008