The first step in the assessment of patients with gait abnormalities in physical and rehabilitation medicine settings is a clinical examination based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health. Body structure, activities and participation, and environmental factors (physical and human factors) must all be assessed. Qualitative and quantified assessments of gait are part of the activity and participation evaluation. Scales are also used to assess gait activities. Gait assessment tools can be used in laboratory environments for kinematic, kinetic, electromyographic and energy consumption analysis and other tools, such as videotape and walkways, can be used in clinical practice, while ambulatory assessment tools can be used to analyse patients' usual everyday activities. The aims of instrumental gait assessment are: to understand the underlying mechanisms and the aetiology of the disorders, to obtain quantified gait parameters, to define suitable therapeutic methods, and to follow the course of the disease.