Plants remain to be a great source of medicines for humanity. Among them is the Anacardium occidentale L. species, popularly known as the cashew, which has several therapeutic indications, such as cicatrizing, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic and antitumoral properties. The objective of the present work was to assess the mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of cashew stem bark methanolic extract (CSBME) on cell cultures of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79). The cultures were treated with different concentrations of the CSBME (500, 1000 and 2000 microg/mL) or with the extract associated with doxorubicin (DXR, 0.75 microg/mL) during the cell cycle phases G1, S, and G2 and throughout continuous treatment. Apart from these treatments, the cell cultures were also treated with PBS (negative-control) and DXR (positive-control). The data obtained in the chromosome aberrations (CA) test showed a significant reduction in CA frequency in the cultures treated with DXR and extract in comparison with those that received only DXR during the cell cycle phases G1 and S and throughout the entire cycle, as well as the absence of mutagenicity in all the treatments realized. The antimutagenic effect observed in this work reinforces the presence of the previously described therapeutic properties of cashew and indicates the safe use of this extract.