Evaluation of gender differences in physiology: an introduction.

@article{Tarnopolsky2001EvaluationOG,
  title={Evaluation of gender differences in physiology: an introduction.},
  author={Mark Andrew Tarnopolsky and Wim H. M. Saris},
  journal={Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care},
  year={2001},
  volume={4 6},
  pages={
          489-92
        }
}
The overall theme of the current section is an evaluation of gender differences in physiology. Cognizant of the broad scope of the topic, we will limit this to muscle physiology and whole body energy and macronutrient metabolism. Given the massive increase in strain placed upon a physiological system in response to physical exercise, the articles will focus mostly on exercise as a major theme to illustrate gender differences in physiology. 

Gender and physiology in ice hockey a multidimensional study

TLDR
This review concludes that the current gender regime in sport, in which men are prioritised over women, is unsustainable and should be changed.

Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Physical Exercise Explained: A Narrative Review

The study of the origin and implications of fatigue in exercise has been widely investigated, but not completely understood given the complex multifactorial mechanisms involved. Then, it is essential

Physiological responses in male and female 400 m sprinters

TLDR
It can be concluded that it is necessary to determine whether there are differences in these parameters between male and female sprinters, which will result in a more organized plan for the collective training process.

Physiological employment standards IV: integration of women in combat units physiological and medical considerations

TLDR
There is no direct evidence that women have a negative impact on combat effectiveness, but once the gender differences are acknowledged and operational doctrines adjusted accordingly, female soldiers in mixed-gender units can meet the physical standards for the assigned missions.

Does sex matter in musculoskeletal health? The influence of sex and gender on musculoskeletal health.

TLDR
Emerging information from such studies provides a compelling case for the existence of innate, and heretofore unexamined, differences between men and women at the genetic and cellular levels.

Olympic textbook of science in sport

List of Contributors, vii.Foreword, ix.Preface, x..Introduction: Sport, Science and Sports Science.Ronald J. Maughan..Part 1: Physiology and Biochemistry.1 Muscle: Producing Force and Movement.Paavo

Nutritional knowledge and dietary practices among Division I athletes: Do college athletes understand and fulfill sex specific nutritional and metabolic requirements?

TLDR
It was found that although both male and female athletes possess a good understanding of caloric needs during training days, their dietary knowledge did not necessarily translate into dietary patterns consistent with best practices.

Sex-based effects on the distribution of NK cell subsets in response to exercise and carbohydrate intake in adolescents.

TLDR
Results demonstrate sex-based differences in the distribution of NK cell subsets and activation status in response to exercise, but not CHO intake, and further support the need to control for sex in exercise immunology studies.

Sex in a material world: why the study of sexual reproduction and sex-specific traits should become more nutritionally-explicit

TLDR
It is argued that applying nutritionally-explicit thought to the study of sexual reproduction should both deepen current understanding of sex-specific phenomena and broaden the tractable frontiers of sexual selection research.

References

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TLDR
It is concluded that during exercise, men have increased autonomic nervous system (epinephrine, norepinephrine, pancreatic polypeptide), cardiovascular (systolic, mean arterial pressure) and certain metabolic (carbohydrate oxidation) counterregulatory responses, but that women have increased lipolytic (glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids) and ketogenic (beta-hydroxybutyrate) responses.

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TLDR
The study of the mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle lipid metabolism represents a new frontier in skeletal muscle bioenergetics, and new discoveries may provide further explanations for the observed sex differences in substrate utilization and response to alterations in energy homeostasis.

Gender differences in carbohydrate loading are related to energy intake.

TLDR
It is demonstrated that female endurance athletes did not increase their muscle glycogen concentration after an increase in the dietary carbohydrate intake, whereas men did, and potential gender differences were related to muscle hexokinase enzyme activity.

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TLDR
An integrative review of the research comparing [Vdot]O2 max in men and women using the meta-analytic strategy proposed by Glass (1976) is provided and an overall estimate of the magnitude of the sex effect for each of three expressions of [V dot]O 2 max is provided.

Gender differences in substrate for endurance exercise.

TLDR
It is concluded that, during moderate-intensity long-duration exercise, females demonstrate greater lipid utilization and less carbohydrate and protein metabolism than equally trained and nourished males.

Gender differences in leucine kinetics and nitrogen balance in endurance athletes.

TLDR
The current Canadian RNI for protein is inadequate for those who chronically engage in endurance exercise and leucine kinetics during exercise is concluded.

Estimation of gender bias in clinical trials

TLDR
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Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise.

TLDR
The view that different priorities are placed on lipid and carbohydrate oxidation during exercise in men and women is supported and that these gender-based differences extend to the catecholamine response to exercise.

Distance running performance and metabolic responses to running in men and women with excess weight experimentally equated.

TLDR
It was concluded that the greater sex-specific, essential body fat of women is one determinant of the sex difference in metabolic responses to running and distance running performance.

Training-induced alterations of carbohydrate metabolism in women: women respond differently from men.

TLDR
Results show the following in young women: 1) glucose use is directly related to exercise intensity; 2) training decreases glucose flux for a given power output; 3) when expressed as relative exercise intensity, training does not affect the magnitude of blood glucose flux during exercise; but 4) training does reduce total carbohydrate oxidation.