Evaluation of endogenous urinary biomarkers for indirect detection of urine adulteration attempts by five different chemical adulterants in mass spectrometry methods.

  title={Evaluation of endogenous urinary biomarkers for indirect detection of urine adulteration attempts by five different chemical adulterants in mass spectrometry methods.},
  author={Andrea Eva Steuer and Dominique Kamber and Thomas Kraemer},
  journal={Drug testing and analysis},
  volume={11 5},
Reliable detection of urine adulteration attempts to circumvent positive drug testing represents a critical step for laboratories in abstinence control settings. An ideal workflow for high-throughput testing would involve simultaneous detection of adulteration attempts in the same run with drug detection. Monitoring of degraded or oxidized endogenous urinary compounds as indirect markers has been previously evaluated for that purpose exemplified for the adulterant potassium nitrite (KNO2… 
Metabolomic Strategies in Biomarker Research–New Approach for Indirect Identification of Drug Consumption and Sample Manipulation in Clinical and Forensic Toxicology?
More studies, including more sensitive targeted analyses, multi-variant statistical models or deep-learning approaches are needed to fully explore the potential of omics science in DOA testing.
Profiling of polar urine metabolite extracts from Chinese colorectal cancer patients to screen for potential diagnostic and adverse-effect biomarkers
The profiling of urine polar metabolites has great potential in the early detection of CRC and the prediction of CRAE.
Pitfalls in drug testing by hyphenated low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry.
  • H. Maurer
  • Chemistry
    Drug testing and analysis
  • 2019
This paper reviews various pitfalls observed during developing, validation, application, and interpretation of drug testing approaches using GC-MS and low- and high-resolution LC-MS including artifact formation, ion suppression or enhancement by electrospray ionization, and finally pitfalls in data interpretation.
Hyphenated high-resolution mass spectrometry—the “all-in-one” device in analytical toxicology?
  • H. Maurer
  • Biology
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
  • 2020
Considering the reviewed papers, HRMS is currently the only technique that fulfills the criteria of an all-in-one device for the various applications needed in analytical toxicology.


A new metabolomics-based strategy for identification of endogenous markers of urine adulteration attempts exemplified for potassium nitrite
Untargeted mass spectrometry methods used in metabolomics should theoretically allow detecting concentration changes of any endogenous urinary metabolite or presence of new biomarkers produced by chemical adulteration, and selected markers might be integrated into routine MS screening procedures allowing for detection of adulterated urine samples within routine MS analysis.
Suitability evaluation of new endogenous biomarkers for the identification of nitrite-based urine adulteration in mass spectrometry methods.
HIU and UA proved suitable markers to identify urine adulteration using KNO2 and are ready for implementation into routine MS procedures.
Systematic investigations of novel validity parameters in urine drug testing and prevalence of urine adulteration in a two-year cohort.
Six manipulated samples were identified in this study, and fake urine samples were additionally identified by the detection of unique polyglycole patterns, which were observed in purchasedfake urine samples.
Investigation of nitrite adulteration on the immunoassay and GC-MS analysis of cannabinoids in urine specimens.
Results from this report demonstrate that the two outstanding "urine specimen factors" that dictated the effectiveness of the nitrite adulteration were urinary pH and the original drug concentration before nitrite spiking.
False-negative results in the immunoassay analysis of drugs of abuse: can adulterants be detected by sample check test?
Urine samples with drugs of abuse concentrations above cut-offs can be successfully tampered with adulterants in a way which cannot be detected with the CEDIA® sample check assay.
Adulterants in Urine Drug Testing.
  • S. Fu
  • Medicine, Biology
    Advances in clinical chemistry
  • 2016
Adulteration of urine by "Urine Luck".
PCC is an effective adulterant for urine drug testing of THC and opiates and identification of PCC use can be accomplished with use of a spot test for the oxidant.
Effects of oxidizing adulterants on detection of 11-nor-delta9-THC-9-carboxylic acid in urine.
Several oxidizing adulterants that are difficult to test by the present urine adulterant testing methods showed considerable effects on the destruction of THC-acid.
Hypochlorite Adulteration of Urine Causing Decreased Concentration of Δ9-THC-COOH by GC/MS
There appeared to be a consistent decrease in the ratio of native todeuterated THC, suggesting that the bleach affected the native drug more than the deuterated compound.
Effects of pyridinium chlorochromate adulterant (urine luck) on testing for drugs of abuse and a method for quantitative detection of chromium (VI) in urine.
Chromium (VI) from PCC in a urine solution was detected by a color reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC), an immediate red-violet color appeared and the ratio of absorption was used to identify the chromium compound.