An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting antibody to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in porcine serum is described. The results are presented as an ELISA ratio, calculated by dividing the absorbance of the test sample by the mean absorbance of control negative sera. In known infected pigs, the ELISA ratio was highest when the serum concentration applied to the ELISA plate was diluted 1 in 20 in PBS - Tween. Mean ELISA ratios ranged from 1.2 +/- 0.3 for pigs without porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP) lesions to 5.5 +/- 1.5 for pigs observed with a PEP lesion reacting positively with immunofluorescent histopathology. Pigs observed with typical PEP lesions at slaughter, but not confirmed by immunofluorescent histopathology had a mean ELISA ratio of 4.9 +/- 1.7. The ELISA was highly sensitive (95.6%) and specific (98.8%) when pig sera from commercial piggeries of known M hyopneumoniae infection status were assessed. No cross-reactivity with serum from a pig hyperimmunised with killed M flocculare was detected, and reactivity with serum from another pig hyperimmunised with killed M hyorhinis showed only weak cross-reactivity, which failed to reach the ELISA positive threshold (ELISA ratio 3) for M hyopneumoniae.