OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a Salmonella bacterin and a modified live Salmonella ser. Choleraesuis vaccine on a commercial dairy. ANIMALS 450 cows in late gestation and 80 calves. PROCEDURE Group-1 cows (n = 150) were vaccinated once with a modified live S. Choleraesuis (serogroup C1) strain 54 (SC54) vaccine, group-2 cows (150) were vaccinated on enrollment and 30 days later with a Salmonella ser. Montevideo (serogroup C1) bacterin, and group-3 cows (150) served as unvaccinated controls. One gallon of colostrum harvested from the first 80 cows to calve was fed to each calf. Outcome assessments included fecal shedding of Salmonella spp for the first 10 days after parturition (cows) or birth (calves), milk production, involuntary culling rate, mastitis incidence, antimicrobial use, and mortality rate. RESULTS Salmonellae were isolated from 306 of 309 (99%) cows and 64 of 74 (86.5%) calves. Shedding frequency was less in SC54-vaccinated cows and calves that received colostrum from those cows, compared with the other groups, and vaccination was specifically associated with less shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae. Production data were similar among groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Vaccination of pregnant cows with an autogenous Salmonella bacterin had no effect on fecal shedding of salmonellae, whereas vaccination with a modified live S. Choleraesuis vaccine reduced the frequency of fecal shedding of serogroup C1 salmonellae during the peripartum period. A commercial S. Choleraesuis vaccine licensed for use in swine may be more efficacious than autogenous Salmonella bacterins on dairies infected with serogroup C1 salmonellae.