CONTEXT Evidence is inconclusive whether a nurse consultation can improve osteoporosis-related patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether a nurse consultation immediately after dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) produced better osteoporosis-related outcomes than a simple intervention to activate adults in good bone health practices or usual care. DESIGN Pilot randomized controlled trial, conducted within the larger Patient Activation After DXA Result Notification (PAADRN) trial (NCT01507662). After DXA, consenting adults age 50 years or older were randomly assigned to 3 groups: nurse consultation, PAADRN intervention (mailed letter with individualized fracture risk and an educational brochure), or usual care (control). Nurse consultation included reviewing DXA results, counseling on bone health, and ordering needed follow-up tests or physician referrals. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Change from baseline to 52 weeks in participant-reported osteoporosis-related pharmacotherapy, lifestyle, activation and self-efficacy, and osteoporosis care satisfaction. RESULTS Nurse consultation participants (n = 104) reported 52-week improvements in strengthening and weight-bearing exercise (p = 0.09), calcium intake (p < 0.01), osteoporosis knowledge (p = 0.04), activation (p < 0.01), dietary self-efficacy (p = 0.06), and osteoporosis care satisfaction (p < 0.01). Compared with PAADRN intervention participants (n = 39), nurse consultation participants had improved dietary self-efficacy (p = 0.07) and osteoporosis care satisfaction (p = 0.05). No significant improvements in osteoporosis-related outcomes were achieved vs PAADRN controls (n = 70). CONCLUSION "Just-in-time" nurse consultation yielded a few improvements over 52 weeks in osteoporosis-related outcomes; however, most changes were not different from those obtained through the lower-cost PAADRN intervention or usual care.