Evaluation of Antioxidant and Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Peltophorum pterocarpum in Scopolamine treated Rats

  • N. B. Sridharamurthy, B A Ashok, R. Yogananda
  • Published 2012

Abstract

To evaluate the antioxidant and Acetyl cholinesterase activity of Methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum (MEPP) in scopolamine treated rats. The methanol extract was subjected for phytochemical analysis to identify different phytochemical constituents. Neuroprotective activity of methanol extract was studied against accelerated ageing with D-galactose followed by scopolamine to induce memory. Behavioral studies, AChE activity, antioxidant parameters of brain homogenate, serum biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of brain were assessed in Control / Scopolamine / Standard / Extract treated animals. Phytochemical investigation of methanol revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, aminoacids, glycosides, triterpinoids, flavonoids and total phenolic content. D-galactose induced oxidative stress and scopolamine induced memory impairment in rats were significantly prevented by treatment with methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum bark. Methanol extract treated group improved memory in elevated plus maze and Y maze tests, reduction in AChE activity, increased activity of brain antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, super oxide dismutase, glutathione and reducing the increased activity of lipid peroxidation and also reduction in serum biochemical parameter glucose, total cholesterol and reverse in the degenerative changes in the histopathological study of the rat brain. Hence methanol extract of Peltophorum pterocarpum treated animals confirmed the protection of brain against oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and behavioral (learning, memory) changes of extract under study. *Corresponding author, Mailing address: N. B. Sridharamurthy Email: murthy.sridhara@yahoo.com Article History:-----------------------Date of Submission: 24-05-2012 Date of Acceptance: 05-06-2012 Conflict of Interest: NIL Source of Support: NONE F U L L L e n g t h R e s e a r c h P a p e r C o v e r e d i n I n d e x C o p e r n i c u s w i t h I C V a l u e 4 .6 8 f o r 2 0 1 0 Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., July-September 2012, 4 (3): 115-127 Covered in Scopus & Embase, Elsevier 115 medical use of plant organs (leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits and seeds) for their curative properties. Generally, herbal products contain complex mixtures of active components (phytochemicals), including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, and it is often difficult to determine which components of the herbs has biological activity .1, 2 Nutritional therapy is a healing system using functional foods and nutraceuticals as therapeutics. This complementary therapy is based on the assumption that food is not only a source of nutrients and energy, but can also provide health benefits. In particular, the reported health-promoting effects of plant foods and beverages can be ascribed to the numerous bioactive chemicals present in plant tissues and, consequently, occurring in foods. Consumed as part of a normal diet, plant foods are thus not only a source of nutrients and energy, but may additionally provide health benefits beyond basic nutritional functions, by virtue of their dietary therapeutics (phytochemicals).3 Nootropic agents such as piracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam and cholinesterase inhibitors like donepezil, gallantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine are being primarily used to improve memory. However, the resulting adverse effects associated with these agents have limited their use 4, 5 and it is worthwhile to explore the utility of traditional medicines in the treatment of cognitive disorders. The Indian system of medicine is replete with medicinal plants claimed to promote learning, memory and intelligence. Plants like Bacopa monniera, 6 Azadirachta indica, 7 Withania somnifera, 8 as well as Ocimum sanctum, 9 have been investigated for their cognitive function. Although, several plant products are traditionally used to treat the age related neurodegenerative complications, still many agents are poorly studied in the literature. Hence, the present study is undertaken to investigate the antioxidant and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of Peltophorum pterocarpum for neuroprotection and cholinergic influenced learning and memory using interceptive and exteroceptive tests. Neurodegenerative Disease: Neuroprotection refers to the strategies and relative mechanisms able to defend the central nervous system (CNS) against neuronal injury due to both acute (e.g. stroke or trauma) and chronic neurodegenerative disorders.10 Age is the single most important risk factors for degenerative disease of the CNS. As the lifespan of humans continues to increase, an increasing burden of degenerative diseases is emerging. Some signs of degeneration, such as neuronal loss or even specific pathologic changes, may also occur in ageing in the absence of disease. Healthy ageing is also characterized by changes in neurotransmitters, which could be responsible for some of the changes in cognitive (age associated memory impairment) or motor abilities in older individuals. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Lewy-Body dementia (LBD), frontal lobe dementia (FLD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and cerebrovascular dementia (CVD) result in an insidious cognitive and behavioural decline culminating in the development of severe dementia. Dementia (Latin, dementare meaning ‘to drive mad’) is generally defined as “a state of serious emotional and mental deterioration, of organic or functional origin”.11 AD is a form of dementia, resulting from the degeneration of basal fore brain cholinergic neurons innervating the cortex amygdale and hippocampus. This is resulting into the Cognitive impairement, personality changes, psychotic symptoms, incontinence, gait and motor disturbance, seizures. Degenerative disease of the brain is associated with deficits in the cholinergic system. The cholinergic system is an important modulator in the brain and is vital for conscious awareness. Acetyl choline (Ach) regulates high cognitive functions such as memory, F U L L L e n g t h R e s e a r c h P a p e r C o v e r e d i n I n d e x C o p e r n i c u s w i t h I C V a l u e 4 .6 8 f o r 2 0 1 0 N. B. Sridharamurthy et al: Evaluation of Antioxidant and Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Peltophorum pterocarpum in Scopolamine treated Rats Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., July-September 2012, 4 (3): 115-127 Covered in Scopus & Embase, Elsevier 116 learning, dendrite arborization, neuronal developement and differentiation.12 Evidently, since Alzheimer’s disease is by far the most prevalent form of dementia, and will undoubtedly serve as the benchmark for any future treatment of dementia, an update of current symptomatic and diseasemodifying therapeutic approaches (cholinergic, glutamatergic, nootropics and b-amyloid cascade inhibitors) should be reviewed. Methodology Experimental animals Healthy Wister rats and Swiss Albino mice of sex, weighing between 150-200g and 20-30g respectively were procured from the animal house of Dayananda Sagar college of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India where the animals were kept in well ventilated spacious animal house with 12 ± 1 h day and night schedule. The animals were lodged in large and spacious hygienically maintained cages during the course of the experimental period. The room temperature was maintained at 25 ± 1°C. The animals were fed with standard rat feed (Brook Bond Lipton India Ltd., Bangalore.) and water ad libitum. The experiments were conducted as per the guidelines of CPCSEA, Chennai, India (approval no. Col/IAEC/55/11-12). Plant material The fresh bark of Peltophorum pterocarpum was procured from the surroundings of Bangalore district in the month of July-September as the active constituents are found to be more during these months. Plant material was authenticated and certified by Dr. Shiddamallayya N, Botonist, National Ayurveda Research Institute, Ashoka pillar, Jayanagar, Bangalore–560 011. Vide ref no: Drug authentication/SMPU/NADRI/BNG/2011-12/210. A voucher specimen of the collected sample is deposited in the departmental herbarium for the future reference. Preparation of extract The powdered material of Peltophorum pterocarpum bark was refluxed successively with the solvents Petroleum ether (400-600, EMerck Mumbai, India), Chloroform (500 – 700, E-Merck Mumbai, India) and Methanol (EMerck Mumbai, India) in a Soxhlet extractor for 48 hrs in batches of 350g each. Every time, before extracting with the next solvent the marc was dried. All the extracts so obtained were concentrated in vacuum using rotary flash evaporator (Buchi-Flawil, Switzerland). Finally the solvents were removed completely over the water bath and finally desiccators dried. The extracts so obtained from each of the solvents were labelled, weighed and the yield was calculated in terms of grams percent of the weight of the powdered bark12. Qualitative phytochemical screening: 12 The crude extracts of the bark viz., Petroleum ether, Chloroform, and Methanol extracts of Peltophorum pterocarpum were then subjected to the qualitative tests to detect the major chemical groups. Estimation of Total Phenolic Content Recent studies have shown that many dietary polyphenolics constituents derived from plants are more effective antioxidants in vitro than vitamins E or C, and thus might contribute to the protective effects in vivo. It is possible to assess the extent to which the total antioxidant potentials of plant extracts can be accounted for by the activities of the individual polyphenols. Hence, the total phenol content of the extracts was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method.13 This test is based on oxidation of phenolic groups with phosphomolybdic and phosphotungstic acids. After oxidation, a greenblue complex formed was measured at 750 nm. Acute toxicity study 12 Albino mice were procured from animal house of DSCP and were divided into six (6) groups of two (2) animals each. Group 1: Control (1% CMC) Group 2: MEPP 3000 mg/kg b.w. in 1 % CMC F U L L L e n g t h R e s e a r c h P a p e r C o v e r e d i n I n d e x C o p e r n i c u s w i t h I C V a l u e 4 .6 8 f o r 2 0 1 0 N. B. Sridharamurthy et al: Evaluation of Antioxidant and Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Peltophorum pterocarpum in Scopolamine treated Rats Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., July-September 2012, 4 (3): 115-127 Covered in Scopus & Embase, Elsevier 117 Group 3: MEPP 2000 mg/kg b.w. in 1% CMC Group 4: MEPP 1000 mg/kg b.w. in 1 %CMC Group 5: MEPP 500 mg/kg b.w. in 1% CMC Group 6: MEPP 300 mg/kg b.w. in 1 % CMC Animals were fasted for 24 hour prior to the administration of MEPP. After 24 hrs, all the groups were treated with the respective dose of MEPP dissolved in 1 % CMC orally according to their body weight. Change in the behaviour and % mortality was noted for 24 hours and continued the observation up to 7 days. Scopalamine model14, 15

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@inproceedings{Sridharamurthy2012EvaluationOA, title={Evaluation of Antioxidant and Acetyl Cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Peltophorum pterocarpum in Scopolamine treated Rats}, author={N. B. Sridharamurthy and B A Ashok and R. Yogananda}, year={2012} }