The mutagenic potential of furfural was evaluated by means of the chromosome loss test in germ cells and the wing spot test in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster. The chromosome loss test was carried out employing repair-proficient as well as repair-deficient females. Males carried the compound Y chromosome, BSYy+. Two routes of administration were used: injection and feeding of adult males. Genetic damage was demonstrable after matings of treated males with females carrying the excision repair-deficient mutant mei-9a. The somatic mutation and recombination test was carried out treating 72-h transheterozygous mwh+/+flr3 larvae. Acute treatment of larvae was chosen as the method of exposure. Evidence indicates that furfural induces somatic damage as measured in the wing spot test.