Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research.

@article{Fabrigar1999EvaluatingTU,
  title={Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research.},
  author={Leandre R. Fabrigar and Duane T. Wegener and Robert C. MacCallum and Erin J. Strahan},
  journal={Psychological Methods},
  year={1999},
  volume={4},
  pages={272-299}
}
Despite the widespread use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research, researchers often make questionable decisions when conducting these analyses. This article reviews the major design and analytical decisions that must be made when conducting a factor analysis and notes that each of these decisions has important consequences for the obtained results. Recommendations that have been made in the methodological literature are discussed. Analyses of 3 existing empirical data sets… 

Tables from this paper

Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Published Research
Given the proliferation of factor analysis applications in the literature, the present article examines the use of factor analysis in current published research across four psychological journals.
Exploratory factor analysis in validation studies: uses and recommendations.
TLDR
Overall, the current review provides support for some improvement guidelines regarding how to apply and report an EFA.
Exploratory factor analysis: Current use, methodological developments and recommendations for good practice
Psychological research often relies on Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). As the outcome of the analysis highly depends on the chosen settings, there is a strong need for guidelines in this context.
Exploratory Factor Analysis: A Guide to Best Practice
Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a multivariate statistical method that has become a fundamental tool in the development and validation of psychological theories and measurements. However,
Current Methodological Considerations in Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis
TLDR
The present article provides a current overview of these areas in an effort to provide researchers with up-to-date methods and considerations in both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation: An Empirical Review
TLDR
From the review of the psychological assessment literature, several recommendations were provided to assist assessment researchers report validity evidence from CFA studies.
Evaluating Factor Analysis Decisions for Scale Design in Communication Research
TLDR
It is demonstrated that factoring decisions in the broad community of communication journals is even less rigorous in these regards.
A Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis Decisions and Overview of Current Practices: What We Are Doing and How Can We Improve?
TLDR
A step-by-step guide and checklist that authors can reference to ensure the use of recommended best practices is provided to rectify concerns with current research.
Toward Reflective Judgment in Exploratory Factor Analysis Decisions: Determining the Extraction Method and Number of Factors To Retain.
This paper considers some decisions that must be made by the researcher conducting an exploratory factor analysis. The primary purpose is to aid the researcher in making informed decisions during the
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 158 REFERENCES
THE APPLICATION OF EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS IN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: A CRITICAL REVIEW AND ANALYSIS
Although factor analysis has been a major contributing factor in advancing psychological research, a systematic assessment of how it has been applied is lacking. For this review we examined the
On the Interpretation of Factor Analysis
TLDR
To improve the current situation some measure of factor reliability should accompany applied studiesthat utilize factor analysis, and three operational approaches are suggested for obtaining measures of reliability: use of split samples, Monte Carlo simulation, and a priori models.
New Procedure for Extension Analysis in Exploratory Factor Analysis
Exploratory common factors have been correlated with variables external to the factor analysis by either extension analysis estimates or by correlating the external variables with estimated factor
The investigation of personality structure: Statistical models
Abstract This article provides an introduction to a number of statistical techniques for investigating the structure of measures of personality. Each of these techniques is illustrated through its
A Cautionary Note on the Use of Principal Components Analysis
In a recent edition of this journal, Borgatta et al. (1986), using hypothetical data, illustrated how the results produced by principal components analysis can be substantially different from those
A Factor Analytic Interpretation Strategy
TLDR
The factor results used for this illustration of a factor analytic interpretation strategy are the reanalyses, by seven different solutions, of the data from nine of the Guilford studies as reported by C. Harris (1967).
SOME NOTES ON THE NUMBER OF FACTORS PROBLEM.
TLDR
The paper presents the results of a study in which reanalyses were performed on 17 correlation matrices found in the literature, and eight well-known rules and one new rule for determining the correct number of factors were applied.
Multivariate Analysis: The Need for Data, and other Problems
  • B. Everitt
  • Medicine
    British Journal of Psychiatry
  • 1975
TLDR
Multivariate analyses are an aid to, not a substitute for critical thinking in the area of data analysis, if careful consideration is given to questions of sample size, variable type, variable distribution etc., and accusations of subjectivity in interpretation can only be overcome by replication.
Covariance structure analysis: statistical practice, theory, and directions.
TLDR
This review examines conditions under which conclusions drawn from various estimation methods will be correct and the consequences of ignoring these conditions and shows that valid conclusions are possible even under misspecification.
Goodness-of-fit indexes in confirmatory factor analysis : The effect of sample size
This investigation examined the influence of sample size on different goodness-of-fit indices used in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The first two data sets were derived from large normative
...
...