Evaluating seasonal variation in bottom-up and top-down forces and their impact on an exotic wood borer, Tetropium fuscum (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

Abstract

It is well understood that forces from multiple trophic levels simultaneously influence herbivore performance, but how the relative strength of these forces vary over space and time is less clear. We evaluated seasonal variation in the impact of bottom-up forces (host condition), top-down forces (natural enemies), and competition on the performance of an… (More)
DOI: 10.1603/EN13043

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