Evaluating Neanderthal Genetics and Phylogeny

  title={Evaluating Neanderthal Genetics and Phylogeny},
  author={Martin Bay Hebsgaard and Carsten Wiuf and M. Thomas P. Gilbert and Henrik Glenner and Eske Willerslev},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Evolution},
The retrieval of Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalsensis) mitochondrial DNA is thought to be among the most significant ancient DNA contributions to date, allowing conflicting hypotheses on modern human (Homo sapiens) evolution to be tested directly. [] Key Result Using Bayesian inference and the largest dataset to date, we find strong support for a monophyletic Neanderthal clade outside the diversity of contemporary humans, in agreement with the expectations of the Out-of-Africa replacement model of modern…
A molecular approach to Neanderthal extinction
Multiple Origins of Archaic Homo sapiens Indicated by Denisova Hominin DNA
The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mitochondrion DNA (mtDNA) shows that the Denisova hominin branches off much earlier than the divergence of modern humans and European archaic Homo sapiens (i.e. Neanderthals), which occurred about one million years ago.
Twelve years of Neandertal genetic discoveries: state-of-the-art and future challenges
This chapter reviews current knowledge on NeandertalDNA sequences and presents future challenges related to Ne andertal genomics.
To what extent did Neanderthals and modern humans interact?
The current anthropological, archaeological and genetic data are reviewed, which shed some light on these questions and provide insight into the exact nature of the relationships between these two groups of humans.
Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA Evidence for a Diversified Origin of Workers Building Mausoleum for First Emperor of China
The results showed that mausoleum-building workers may be derived from very diverse sources of origin, and this work analyzed polymorphisms in the first hypervariable region and coding regions of mitochondrial DNA of 19 human bone remains dated some 2,200 years before present.
Ancient DNA: Phylogenetic Applications
Studies of ancient human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) attempt to shed light on the genetic relationships among individuals representing archaic or extinct human populations, and between these
New developments in the genetic evidence for modern human origins
The genetic evidence for modern human origins was reviewed recently in Evolutionary Anthropology by Pearson, 1 so our goal is to highlight new developments rather than attempt a comprehensive review.
Ancient mitogenomics.
Phylogeographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup M in India
The overall distribution of the various haplogroups and sub-haplogroups of M among the different castes and tribes is discussed to understand their diverse pattern with respect to geographical location and linguistic affiliation of the populations.


No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans
The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA, and in combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Ne andertals to early modern human humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.
Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus
Phylogenetic analysis places the two Neanderthals from the Caucasus and western Germany together in a clade that is distinct from modern humans, suggesting that their mtDNA types have not contributed to the modern human mtDNA pool.
Evidence for a genetic discontinuity between Neandertals and 24,000-year-old anatomically modern Europeans
Following the most stringent current standards for validation of ancient DNA sequences, it is shown that the mtDNAs of two anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens individuals of the Cro-Magnon type dated at about 23 and 25 thousand years ago fall well within the range of variation of today's humans, but differ sharply from the available sequences of the chronologically closer Neandertals.
DNA sequence of the mitochondrial hypervariable region II from the neandertal type specimen.
The results support the concept that the Neandertal mtDNA evolved separately from that of modern humans for a substantial amount of time and lends no support to the idea that they contributed mtDNA to contemporary modern humans.
Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe
A realistic model of the range expansion of early modern humans into Europe, and of their competition and potential admixture with local Neanderthals, shows that the absence of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences in Europe is compatible with at most 120 admixture events between the two populations despite a likely cohabitation time of more than 12,000 y.
The genetic origins of the Andaman Islanders.
The results demonstrate that Victorian anthropological collections can be used to study extinct, or seriously admixed populations, to provide new data about early human origins.
Assessing the Fidelity of Ancient DNA Sequences Amplified From Nuclear Genes
It is argued that the problems presented by postmortem damage, as well as problems with contamination from exogenous sources of conserved nuclear genes, allelic variation, and the reliance on single nucleotide polymorphisms, call for great caution in studies relying on ancient nuDNA sequences.
Review Paper. Ancient DNA
Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past.
Human origins and analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences.
The strongest support yet is presented for the placement of their common mtDNA [mitochondrial DNA] ancestor in Africa some 200,000 years ago from a tree estimated by maximum parsimony from mtDNA sequence data with the use of the computer program PAUP.