ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT: The ratio of compressions to ventilations is 30:2 for all adult victims of cardiac arrest. AUTOMATED EXTERNAL DEFIBRILLATION: A single defibrillatory shock is delivered, immediately followed by two minutes of uninterrupted CPR. ADULT ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT: In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest attended, but unwitnessed, by healthcare professionals equipped with manual defibrillators, give CPR for 2 minutes before defibrillation. The recommended initial energy for biphasic defibrillators is 150-200 J, for second and subsequent shocks is 150-360 J. The recommended energy when using a monophasic defibrillator is 360 J for both the initial and subsequent shocks. Rhythm checks must be brief, and pulse cheks undertaken only if an organised rhythm is observed. Adrenaline is given 1 mg i.v. as soon as intravenous access is obtained, and repeated every 3-5 min thereafter until return of spontaneous circulation is achieved. Consider thrombolytic therapy when cardiac arrest is thought to be due to proven or suspected pulmonary embolus. Unconscious adult patinets, with spontaneous circulation, after out-of-hospital VF cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32-34 degrees C for 12-24 hours. PAEDIATRIC BASIC LIFE SUPPORT: Lay rescuers or lone rescuers witnessing paediatric cardiac arrest will start with 5 rescue breaths and continue with the 30:2 ratio as thaught in adult BLS. Two or more rescuers with a duty to respond will use the 15:2 ration in a child up to the onset of puberty. PAEDIATRIC ADVANCED LIFE SUPPORT: When using a manual defibrillator, a dose of 4 J/kg (biphasic or monophasic waveform) should be used for the first and subsequent shocks. Adrenaline iv. or i.o. should be given at the dose of 10 microg/kg (0.01 mg/kg) and repeated every 3-5 minutes. NEONATAL LIFE SUPPORT: Protect the newborn from heat loss. Standard resuscitation in delivery room should be made with 100% oxygen. Suctioning meconium from the baby's nose and mouth before delivery of the baby's chest (intrapartum suctioning) is not useful and no longer recommended.