PURPOSE To analyse the etiologic factors of the congenital cataract. METHODS The authors analyzed 49 cases of congenital cataract in patients hospitalized at Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lódź. The diagnostic procedures were based on own multiprofile algorithm which included natural history, complete ophthalmologic examination, metabolic, cytogenetic and serologic investigation. RESULTS Four groups of patients were established depending on the nature of the etiologic factors: metabolic, familial and/or genetic, environmental and unknown. CONCLUSION Etiology of more than one half of the analyzed patients was found and specific treatment was possible in some cases.