Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders

  title={Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders},
  author={S. M. Schaafsma and D. Pfaff},
  journal={Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology},
  • S. M. Schaafsma, D. Pfaff
  • Published 2014
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
  • The male predominance of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting… CONTINUE READING
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