Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

  title={Etiologies underlying sex differences in Autism Spectrum Disorders.},
  author={Sara M. Schaafsma and Donald W. Pfaff},
  journal={Frontiers in neuroendocrinology},
  volume={35 3},
The male predominance of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is one of the best-known, and at the same time, one of the least understood characteristics of these disorders. In this paper we review genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, and environmental mechanisms underlying this male preponderance. Sex-specific effects of Y-linked genes (including SRY expression leading to testicular development), balanced and skewed X-inactivation, genes that escape X-inactivation, parent-of-origin allelic imprinting… CONTINUE READING
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