Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants.

  title={Ethylene: a gaseous signal molecule in plants.},
  author={Anthony B. Bleecker and H. J. Kende},
  journal={Annual review of cell and developmental biology},
Ethylene regulates a multitude of plant processes, ranging from seed germination to organ senescence. Of particular economic importance is the role of ethylene as an inducer of fruit ripening. Ethylene is synthesized from S-adenosyl-L-methionine via 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The enzymes catalyzing the two reactions in this pathway are ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. Environmental and endogenous signals regulate ethylene biosynthesis primarily through differential expression of… 

Figures from this paper

Ethylene Signaling Pathway

A large number of ethylene-regulated genes have been identified, including the APETALA2 domain–containing transcription factor genes ERF1 and EDF1 to 4, which suggests the participation of a transcriptional cascade in the ethylene response.

Roles of Ethylene in Plant Growth and Responses to Stresses

Ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth and development and responses to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. The regulatory mechanisms of ethylene have been extensively studied during the

Regulation of ethylene gas biosynthesis by the Arabidopsis ETO1 protein

It is reported that another ethylene-overproducer mutation, eto1, is in a gene that negatively regulates ACS activity and ethylene production, and it is proposed that ETO1 serves as a substrate-specific adaptor protein that permits rapid modulation of the concentration of ethylene.

Ethylene Signaling in Plants: Introspection

It has been demonstrated that CTR1 binds ER membrane via ETR1 or by a direct association with ERS1 and ETR2 during ethylene signaling, thought to regulate several aspects of plant growth involving associations with other plant hormones primarily auxins and gibberellins.

Genetic basis of ethylene perception and signal transduction in Arabidopsis.

Genetic study reveals that EIN2 is an essential component in the ethylene signaling pathway but its biochemical function remains a mystery.

Molecular mechanisms of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

The ethylene signaling pathway starts with the perception of this gaseous hormone by a family of membrane-anchored receptors followed by a Raf-like kinase CTR1 that is physically associated with the receptors and actively inhibits downstream components of the pathway.

Molecular Basis of the Ethylene Signaling and Response Pathway in Arabidopsis

This review focuses on the recent advances in the ethylene-signaling pathway in Arabidopsis, with particular emphasis on the latest information about the downstream events of the Ethylene-response pathway.

Arabidopsis Ethylene Signaling Pathway

The coregulation of ERF1 by another plant hormone, jasmonic acid, illustrates how a transcriptional cascade could be utilized in a combinatorial fashion to generate a large diversity of responses using a limited number of input signals.

Ethylene signal transduction.

Data indicate that the site of ethylene perception is at the endoplasmic reticulum and point to the importance of protein complexes in mediating the initial steps in ethylene signal transduction.

Ethylene signal transduction and signaling roles-A Review

The elucidation of the mechanisms of ethylene signal transduction in response to biotic and abiotic stress is providing a framework for understanding how all plants sense and respond to ethylene.



The ethylene gas signal transduction pathway: a molecular perspective.

As more genes in the ethylene response pathway are cloned and characterized, they illustrate the precision with which signaling can be controlled.

Arabidopsis ethylene-response gene ETR1: similarity of product to two-component regulators.

An early step in ethylene signal transduction in plants may involve transfer of phosphate as in prokaryotic two-component systems.

EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis.

expression of the EIN2 CEND is sufficient to constitutively activate ethylene responses and restores responsiveness to jasmonic acid and paraquat-induced oxygen radicals to mutant plants, and Ein2 is recognized as a molecular link between previously distinct hormone response pathways.

Molecular mechanisms of ethylene regulation of gene transcription

The immediate goal of this work is to determine which DNA-binding proteins are involved in mediating ethylene-responsive gene transcription, and how they interact with other components of the ethylene signaling pathway, to lead to a more complete understanding of ethylene signal transduction.

Control of ethylene synthesis by expression of a bacterial enzyme in transgenic tomato plants.

Reduction in ethylene synthesis in transgenic plants did not cause any apparent vegetative phenotypic abnormalities, but fruits from these plants exhibited significant delays in ripening, and the mature fruits remained firm for at least 6 weeks longer than the nontransgenic control fruit.

Antisense gene that inhibits synthesis of the hormone ethylene in transgenic plants

It is shown that antisense RNA, which has previously been used only to reduce the expression of genes of known function when applied to pTOM13, reduces ethylene synthesis in a gene dosage-dependent manner.

Differential expression of two novel members of the tomato ethylene-receptor family.

Two additional tomato genes are isolated that are only 42% and 40% identical to ETR1, which suggests that histidine kinase activity is not necessary for an ethylene response, because mutated forms of both LeETR4 and LeetR5 confer dominant ethylene insensitivity in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

ETR2 is an ETR1-like gene involved in ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

  • H. SakaiJ. Hua E. Meyerowitz
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
The plant hormone ethylene regulates a variety of processes of growth and development. To identify components in the ethylene signal transduction pathway, we screened for ethylene-insensitive mutants

Nuclear events in ethylene signaling: a transcriptional cascade mediated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 and ETHYLENE-RESPONSE-FACTOR1.

It is shown that EIN3 and EILs comprise a family of novel sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding directly to a primary ethylene response element related to the tomato E4-element.