Ethotransmission: communication of emotional states through ultrasonic vocalization in rats.

@article{Brudzynski2013EthotransmissionCO,
  title={Ethotransmission: communication of emotional states through ultrasonic vocalization in rats.},
  author={Stefan M. Brudzynski},
  journal={Current opinion in neurobiology},
  year={2013},
  volume={23 3},
  pages={310-7}
}
Adult rats emit two categories of ultrasonic vocalizations, 22 kHz calls and 50 kHz calls. These vocalizations communicate animal's emotional state to other members of the social group. Production of social vocalizations is an evolutionary old activity in vertebrates, and is regulated by well-preserved brain circuitries. The 22 kHz calls express negative, aversive state and are initiated by activity of the mesolimbic cholinergic system originating from laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. The 50 kHz… CONTINUE READING
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