Ethnogenetic layering (EL): an alternative to the traditional race model in human variation and health disparity studies

@article{Jackson2008EthnogeneticL,
  title={Ethnogenetic layering (EL): an alternative to the traditional race model in human variation and health disparity studies},
  author={Fatimah L C Jackson},
  journal={Annals of Human Biology},
  year={2008},
  volume={35},
  pages={121 - 144}
}
  • F. Jackson
  • Published 1 January 2008
  • Medicine
  • Annals of Human Biology
Background: Traditionally, studies in human biodiversity, disease risk, and health disparities have defined populations in the context of typological racial models. However, such racial models are often imprecise generalizations that fail to capture important local patterns of human biodiversity. Aim: More explicit, detailed, and integrated information on relevant geographic, environmental, cultural, genetic, historical, and demographic variables are needed to understand local group expressions… 
Evolutionary perspectives on African North American genetic diversity: Origins and prospects for future investigations
TLDR
Focusing on Legacy African American, the African North American descendants of survivors of the transatlantic trade in enslaved Africans, emic evolutionary perspectives of their self‐identity are reported on from interviews of 600 individuals collected over 2 years.
William Montague Cobb: Near the African diasporic origins of activist and biocultural anthropology
TLDR
This article shows how William Montague Cobb continued the activist and interdisciplinary traditions of African diasporic intellectuals and that these innovated what is today labeled biocultural anthropology, which focuses on the political, economic, and other societal influences on human biology and health.
Including Vulnerable Populations in the Assessment of Data From Vulnerable Populations
TLDR
Three case studies representing some of the outstanding challenges that big data science presents when addressing vulnerable populations as well as the innovative solutions that expanding science participation brings are presented.
ConceptualShiftsNeededtoUnderstandtheDynamic InteractionsofGenes,Environment,Epigenetics,Social Processes,andBehavioralChoices
TLDR
Using case-studyformat, examples are presented as to how the inclusion of genetic, environmental, and epigenetic data can augment social and behavioral health research by expanding the parameters of such studies, adding specificity to phenotypic assessments, and providing additional internal control in comparative studies.
Genomics of Cardiometabolic Disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa
TLDR
Recent understanding of the body of knowledge is summarized and research opportunities on the genomics of cardiometabolic disorders in SSA are highlighted.
Challenges to Analysis of Ancestral Inference Using Mitochondrial DNA Hypervariable Region 1 SNP Typing
TLDR
The mtDNA hypervariable region 1 of an Hispanic/Latino male of African descent was tested and it was demonstrated via current genomic methods and a review of the recent scientific literature that haplogroup L2a is not restricted to sub-Saharan Africa and when found in supraSaharan Africa is not present only due to chattel slavery or recent population movements, as is usually reported.
Race in the Microbiome
TLDR
This research is examined to argue that social scientists must work with biological scientists to help put microbial differences into perspective and investigate how microbiomes and race are entangled embodiments of the social, environmental, and biological.
Population differences in allele frequencies at the OLR1 locus may suggest geographic disparities in cardiovascular risk events
TLDR
The results confirm significant genetic structuring among populations and suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among groups correlated with the geographical location of populations linked with the migrations out of Africa, or with different lifestyle.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 102 REFERENCES
Ethnogenetic Layering: A Novel Approach to Determining Environmental Health Risks Among Children from Three US Regions
Ethnogenetic layering is a new tool to better understand the role of population substructuring (genetic, cultural, and non-genetic biological) in identifying and assessing the risks underlying
Human genetic variation and health: new assessment approaches based on ethnogenetic layering.
TLDR
The βS gene is a classic example of a genes influencing multifactoral complex phenotypes such as many of the psychiatric disorders; scientists are just beginning to understand how these genes interact with each other and with environmental factors in ways that impact on health.
Race and ethnicity as biological constructs.
TLDR
While ethnicity remains primarily a sociocultural category, it has biological precursors, parameters, and consequences for both individuals and groups, the genetic components of these biological dimensions remain to be identified and quantified.
Race and ethnicity as biological constructs.
TLDR
While ethnicity remains primarily a sociocultural category, it has biological precursors, parameters, and consequences for both individuals and groups, the genetic components of these biological dimensions remain to be identified and quantified.
Human Biodiversity: Genes, Race, and History
TLDR
In "Human Biodiversity", Marks has attempted to distill from a centuries-long debate what has been learned and remains to be learned about the biological differences within and among human groups.
Bioarchaeology of the African Diaspora in the Americas: Its Origins and Scope
▪ Abstract The results of over 70 years of African Diasporic bioarchaeology are discussed and explained as emerging from distinct interests and traditions of African Diasporan studies, sociocultural
Laissez les bon temps rouler (let the good times roll): can embedded Cajun cultural health beliefs be changed through traditional health education?
TLDR
An exploration to identify the impact of traditional health education on embedded cultural beliefs of the Cajun population in Cameron Parish Louisiana was performed and found that although the participants had acquired knowledge pertaining to the cause of CHD, they valued their culturally prepared foods and way of life above their health.
Ancestral proportions and admixture dynamics in geographically defined African Americans living in South Carolina.
TLDR
The results of this study indicate, in accordance with previous historical, cultural, and anthropological evidence, a very low level of European admixture in the Gullah Sea Islanders, and a continuous gene flow model of admixture could explain the observed pattern of genetic structure.
Types of social support in African Americans with cancer.
TLDR
The need to reconceptualize social support for African Americans with cancer and to refine instruments to include these different manifestations of social support is suggested.
Mortality transition among the Wends of Serbin, Texas, 1854-1884: changes in pattern of death from parochial records.
  • K. Fliess
  • Environmental Science
    Social biology
  • 1991
TLDR
Investigating causes of death between 1854 and 1884 among the Wends of Serbin, Texas, a nineteenth-century European immigrant community shows that data pertaining to individual cause of death extracted from parochial records can contribute to knowledge about historical mortality patterns at the community level.
...
...