Ethnic Penalties in Unemployment and Occupational Attainment: Evidence for Britain

  title={Ethnic Penalties in Unemployment and Occupational Attainment: Evidence for Britain},
  author={Fiona Carmichael and Rebecca K. Woods},
  journal={International Review of Applied Economics},
  pages={71 - 98}
In spite of progress made since the 1950s and 1960s, black, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi workers remain disadvantaged relative to whites in terms of their labour market opportunities. In general, they experience higher rates of unemployment and tend to be under-represented in higher paid, non-manual occupations. They can therefore be said to pay an ethnic penalty in the competition for jobs although the penalties paid vary considerably between the minority groups. In this paper we examine… 

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