Ethical and Scientific Considerations Regarding Animal Testing and Research


In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch published the seminal book, The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which emphasized reduction, refinement, and replacement of animal use, principles which have since been referred to as the ‘‘3 Rs’’. These principles encouraged researchers to work to reduce the number of animals used in experiments to the… (More)
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024059