Estrogens and the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia: Possible neuroprotective mechanisms

  title={Estrogens and the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia: Possible neuroprotective mechanisms},
  author={Claire McGregor and Alexander J. Riordan and Janice E. Thornton},
  journal={Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology},

Infulence of Sex Hormones and Inflammatory Processes on Cognition in Schizophrenia.

Endocrine factors like: testosteron, estrogen, as well as immunomodulatory are observed to play a role in cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and more studies are necessary to confirm these possible co-relations.

The Role of Estrogen Receptors and Their Signaling across Psychiatric Disorders

This review discusses the contribution of estrogen receptor and estrogen signaling to cognition and neuroprotection via mediating multiple neural systems, such as dopaminergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic systems, and assess their disruptions and their potential implications for pathophysiologies in psychiatric disorders.

Pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia in postmenopausal women

Estrogen modulators may not help all symptoms of schizophrenia but are, nevertheless, relatively safe and, when used as adjuncts, help to keep antipsychotic doses low, thus reducing the side effect burden.

Estradiol reverses excitatory synapse loss in a cellular model of neuropsychiatric disorders

The hypothesis that 17β-estradiol can restore dendritic spine number in a cellular model that recapitulates the loss of synapses associated with schizophrenia and major depressive disorder is tested and indicates that estrogens can restore lost excitatory synapses caused by altered DISC1 expression.

Use of psychotropic medication in women with psychotic disorders at menopause and beyond

It is concluded that antipsychotic drugs with a wider range of action and with fewer side effects are urgently needed and older women's needs must be assessed through a comprehensive history and review of systems and physical and mental examination.

G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor 1 (GPER) as a Novel Target for Schizophrenia Drug Treatment

The possible role of GPER in brain impairments seen in schizophrenia and in its potential as a therapeutic target are discussed and results are encouraging.

Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) Overexpression and Juvenile Immune Activation Cause Sex-Specific Schizophrenia-Related Psychopathology in Rats

Sex-specific effects of environment and genotype as well as their interaction on behavioral phenotypes and neurochemical profiles relevant for schizophrenia are reported.

Using iPSC Models to Understand the Role of Estrogen in Neuron–Glia Interactions in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

The advantages of using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models to revisit studies of mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of E2 in human brain cells are highlighted and a better understanding of these mechanisms opens the opportunity to identify putative targets of novel therapeutic agents for SCZ and BIP.

Raloxifene augmentation in men and women with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder: A study protocol




A Role for Estrogen in Schizophrenia: Clinical and Preclinical Findings

This review comprehensively analyse studies that have investigated the effects of estrogen, in particular 17β-estradiol, in clinical, animal, and molecular research with relevance to schizophrenia to discuss the current evidence on estrogen dysfunction in schizophrenia patients and review the clinical findings on the use of estradiol as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia Patients.

The role of estrogen in schizophrenia.

  • M. Seeman
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN
  • 1996
High levels of estrogens protect against symptom exacerbations in women with schizophrenia, and neuroleptic doses could be reduced at certain times of the month and increased at others.

Association of estrogen levels with neuropsychological performance in women with schizophrenia.

Higher estrogen levels in female patients with schizophrenia are associated with better cognitive ability, especially measures of global cognitive function, verbal and spatial declarative memory, and perceptual-motor speed.

Review: Glutamate and dopamine dysregulation in schizophrenia — a synthesis and selective review

The case for glutamatergic excitotoxicity as a key process in the development and progression of schizophrenia is considered, and ways in which glutamate and dopamine dysregulation may interact in the condition are suggested.

Hormones and schizophrenia

The literature reviewed here suggests that hormones such as oestrogen could be a viable option for schizophrenia, and it is hoped that, with further research and larger trials, the oestrogens protection hypothesis can be translated into effective clinical practice.

NMDA receptor and schizophrenia: a brief history.

  • J. Coyle
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Schizophrenia bulletin
  • 2012
Persistent blockade of NMDA receptors recreates in experimental animals the critical pathologic features of schizophrenia including downregulation of parvalbumin-positive cortical GABAergic neurons, pyramidal neuron dendritic dysgenesis, and reduced spine density.

Inflammation and the two-hit hypothesis of schizophrenia

Glutamate receptor dysfunction and schizophrenia.

It is proposed that since N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction can cause psychosis in humans and corticolimbic neurodegenerative changes in the rat brain, and since these changes are prevented by certain antipsychotic drugs, including atypical neuroleptic agents, a better understanding of this mechanism may lead to improved pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia.